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lignocellulosic wastes to improve ethanol and biogas production: A review. Int. J. Mol. Sci ., 9 (9), 1621–1651. Van Dyk, J. S., Pletschke, B. I. (2012). A review of lignocellulose bioconversion using enzymatic hydrolysis and synergistic cooperation between enzymes: Factors affecting enzymes, conversion and synergy. Biotechnol. Adv., 30 , 1458–1480. Vedernikovs, N. (2008). Method for furfural and bioethanol common production. Latvian patent Nr. 13676 (giving out 20.07.2008). Wyman, C. E., Dale, B. E., Elander, R. T., Holtzapple, M., Ladisch, M. R., Lee, Y. Y. (2005

.P. Wolf, M. Reivich, and D.E. Kuhl, “Labeled 2-deoxy-D-glucose analogs. F-labeled 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose, 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-mannose and 14C-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose”, J Technological Society of Starch, 3, 314-422, 1978. [8] B. Mita, D. Sipra, and S.K. Majumdar, “Production of Alcohol from Starch by Direct Fermentation”, J Technological Society of Starch, 11: 213-236, 1987. [9] U.G. Mohammed, B.M. Abu, and D.E. Effiong, “A Kinetic Study of the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cassava Starch”, International Journal of Science and Engineering Investigations, 1, 181-196, 2012


AHyaluronic acid (HA) is part of the extracellular matrix of connective, epithelial and neural tissues, as well as the synovial fluid, skin, and cartilage. It is composed of repeating disaccharide units of D-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl glucosamine. Hyaluronic acid is used in abdominal surgery, ophthalmology, dermatology, rhinology; it is usable for the osteoarthritis treatment. The membranes of eggshell are a natural source of hyaluronic acid, collagen, glycosaminoglycan and collagenous proteins. In paper, we tested the possibility of extraction hyaluronic acid from the eggshell membranes by enzymatic hydrolysis. We identified optimal conditions of hydrolysis with trypsin at reaction temperature of 37 °C and pH 8; with pepsin at 40 °C and pH 3, as well as with papain at 60 °C and pH 7.5. The content of hyaluronic acid in samples was determined spectrophotometrically using the carbazole method. The experimental results showed a yield of ~ 4 -4.5 % hyaluronic acid per 1 g of dry eggshell membranes.


Background: Plantago major L. leaves have been used for centuries by the traditional medicine in the treatment of infectious disorders of the respiratory, urinary and digestive tracts. Researchers have reported that hot water extracts of Plantago major possess a broad-spectrum of anticancer, antioxidant and antiviral activities, as well as activities which modulate cell-mediated immunity. Their beneficial properties may be due to the significant content of polysaccharides. The polysaccharides that have been isolated from the leaves of Plantago major L. have different structures – pectic substances, galactans, arabinogalactans, glucomannans.

Aim: The aim of this paper was to study the correlation between the structure of the water extractable polysaccharides isolated from Plantago major L. leaves and their enzymatic hydrolysis with different carbohydrate hydrolases.

Materials and methods: The hydrolysis reactions were performed with the enzymes hemicellulase and mannanase. Spectrophotometric total reducing sugars assay was used to examine the hydrolysis yield. The monosaccharide and oligosaccharide compositions were determined using HPLC analysis.

Results: The highest hydrolysis yield of the water extractable polysaccharides from Plantago major leaves was obtained by treatment with hemicellulase. The hydrolysis yield increased with the augmentation of the ratio of enzyme to polysaccharide. Galactose was the prevalent monosaccharide identified in the composition of the isolated polysaccharides. Oligosaccharides with different degree of polymerization were also detected.

Conclusion: The enzymatic hydrolysis of water extractable polysaccharides from Plantago major leaves allows us to obtain different types of oligosaccharides with beneficial effects on both human health and industry.

material. Chem. Ind. , 56(3), 89–105. 18. Seguin, A., Marinkovic, S. & Estrine, B. (2012). New pretreatment of wheat straw and bran in hexadecanol for the combined production of emulsifying base, glucose and lignin material. Carbohyd. Polym. 2, 88, 657–662. DOI:10.1016/j.carbpol.2012.01.018. 19. Alinia, R., Zabihi, S., Esmaeilzadeh, F. & Kalajahi, J.F. (2010). Pretreatment of wheat straw by supercritical CO 2 and its enzymatic hydrolysis for sugar production. Biosystems Engineering 1107, 61

: Proceedings of the World Congress on Vegetable Protein Utilization in Human Foods and Animal Feedstuffs, edited by T.H. Applewhite, pp. 143–151. American Oil Chemist’s Society, Champaign, IL, USA,1989. 14. Aehle, W., Ed.: Enzymes in Industry: Production and Applications; Third Completely Revised Edition, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2007. ISBN: 978-3-31689-2 15. Sousa Jr, R., G.P. Lopes, G.A. Pinto, P.I.F. Almeida, and R.C. Giordano: GMC-Fuzzy Control of pH During Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cheese Whey Proteins; Comput. Chem. Eng. 28 (2004) 1661

applications. Process Biochem ., 75 , 99–120. Rodriguez-Colinas, B., Fernandez-Arrojo, L., Ballesteros, A. O., Plou, F. J. (2014). Galactooligosaccharides formation during enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose: Towards a prebiotic-enriched milk. Food Chem ., 145 , 388–394. Sady, M., Yna Jaworska, G., Grega, T., Bernas, E., Bernas, B., Domagaí, J. (2013). Application of acid whey in orange drink production. Food Technol. Biotech ., 51 (2), 266–277. Sankarraj, N., Nallathambi, G. (2018). Enzymatic biopolishing of cotton fabric with free/immobilized cellulase. Carbohydr


The chemical composition marble goby and sunflower meal is presented. The experimental results of enzymatic hydrolysis velocity in dependence of the protein concentration in substrate systems are set. Michaelis constants values for industrial proteolytic enzymes Corolase ® L10 and Corolase ® L7089 are calculated. The application experimental - theoretical kinetic analysis for protease / proteins congeniality determine in complex dispersion substrate systems expediency was confirmed. It is determined that microbial enzyme drag Corolase ® L7089 has a higher congeniality to proteins of all the tested substrates than plant enzyme drag Corolase ® L10

REFERENCES 1. Adler-Nissen, J.,(1986). Enzymatic hydrolysis of food protein. London: Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, 12–14. 2. Agnihotri, M.K., and Prasad, V.S,(1993). Biochemistry and processing of goat milk and milk products. Small Rumin. Research, 12, 151–170. 3. Alferez, M. J. M., Lopez-Aliaga, I., Nestares, T., et al. (2006). Dietary goat milk improves iron bioavailability in rats with induced ferropenic anaemia in comparison with cow milk. International Dairy Journal, 16(7), 813-821. 4. Butterfield, D. A., Castenga, A., Pocernich, C. B., Drake, J

1 . Figure 1 Enzymatic hydrolysis of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) 1.1 Aminolysis Several studies have assessed the effects of amine interaction with polyester. Early studies assessed the aminolysis of polyester as a means of examining fiber structure without maintaining the integrity of the polymer. The degradation effects on polyester of a monofunctional amine versus alkaline hydrolysis have been studied. These studies, which again involved high levels of fiber degradation, demonstrated that alkaline hydrolysis has a more substantial effect on fiber weight