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Abstract

The recent advances and potential applications of nanoparticles and nanofibres for energy, water, food, biotechnology, the environment, and medicine have immensely conversed. The present review describes a ‘green’ method for the synthesis and stabilization of nanoparticles and ‘green electrospinning’ both using tree gums (arabic, tragacanth, karaya and kondagogu). Furthermore, this review focuses on the impending applications of both gum stabilized nanoparticles and functionalized membranes in remediation of toxic metals, radioactive effluents, and the adsorptive removal of nanoparticulates from aqueous environments as well as from industrial effluents. Besides, the antibacterial properties of gum derivatives, gum stabilized nanoparticles, and functionalized electrospun nanofibrous membranes will also be highlighted. The functionalities of nanofibrous membranes that can be enhanced by various plasma treatments (oxygen and methane, respectively) will also be emphasized.

magnetization [ 21 ]. The reason of higher saturation magnetization in calcined samples could be the presence of more superparamagnetic constituents. However, the presence of non-magnetic phase (i.e. iron-oxide) in MB and MBS could cause the lower saturation magnetization behavior. Materials with superparamagnetic behavior can be easily collected by external magnetic field and have wide application potential in environmental remediation measures [ 7 , 12 , 17 ]. Fig. 4 Saturation magnetization of MB, MBC, MBS and MBSC samples under the applied magnetic field (−20000 Oe to

. Nanoscale iron particles for environmental remediation: An overview. Journal of Nanoparticle Research. Vol. 5 p. 323–332. Z orrig W., S hahzad Z., A bdelly C., B erthomieu P. 2012. Calcium enhances cadmium tolerance and decreases cadmium accumulation in lettuce ( Lactuca sativa ). African Journal of Biotechnology. Vol. 11 p. 8441–8448. X u I., Z hao D. 2007. Reductive immobilization of chromate in water and soil using stabilized iron nanoparticles. Water Research. Vol. 41. Iss. 10 p. 2101–2108.

Abstract

Amongst all of the reducing agents that can be used in environmental remediation, zero valent iron (ZVI) is one of the most common due to its environmental acceptance, high reaction rate, good availability, and long-term stability. Moreover, ZVI mobility, stability and reactivity can be enhanced by the application of a DC electric current, ie electrokinetics (EK). In the study, six various slurries containing different ZVI were tested for their efficacy for chlorinated ethenes and ethanes degradation. Chlorinated compound concentrations, pH, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) and conductivity were determined during the long-term kinetic test. Kinetic rate constants calculated for the degradation of three chlorinated ethenes (PCE, TCE and cis-DCE) concluded that EK brings substantial contribution to chlorinated compounds degradation. Nano-scale zero valent iron STAR had the highest reaction rates compare to the other ZVI tested. The performed study could serve as a preliminary assessment of various available ZVI before in-situ application.

Application of mathematical modelling methods in the protection of groundwater environment

In the projects of protection of soil-water environment there is a need to combine and process large amount of information from various disciplines to estimate parameters of phenomena and to determine the range and time table of necessary undertakings.

Due to complex assessment of processes taking place in aquifers, mathematical modeling is the best tool supporting evaluation off pollution in the ground water environment. It is also an effective method of forecasting the risk associated with the harmful impact of objects polluting grounds and grounds waters.

Significant application of mathematical modeling is the use for the enlargement of information gathered in the process of recognition and assessment of condition that prevail in soil-water environment. Results of modeling, if appropriately presented, could be an important element of decision support system in environmental management.

This paper describes procedures for developing an environmental remediation decision support system by linking CADD and GIS software with the hydro geological flow and transport models.

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remediation. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol. 2016;46(5):443-66. DOI: 10.1080/10643389.2015.1103832. [24] Noubactep C, Caré S, Crane R. Nanoscale metallic iron for environmental remediation: prospects and limitations. Water Air Soil Pollut. 2012;223(3):1363-82. DOI: 10.1007/s11270-011-0951-1. [25] Przepiora A, Roberts J. Zero-valent iron for groundwater remediation - Lessons learned over 20 years of technology use. 2016:28. Available from: https://www.esaa.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/16-Przepiora2.pdf . [26] Gu C, Jia H, Li H, Teppen BJ, Boyd SA. Synthesis of highly

., 2003. Nanoscale iron particles for environmental remediation: An overview. Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 5: 323-332.