Piotr Rzymski, Agnieszka Drewek and Piotr Klimaszyk
The global use of pharmaceuticals is on the systematic rise and leads to contamination of surface waters with xenobiotic compounds with a wide range of bioactivity. Waters that receive urban and medical effluents are particularly threatened. The presence of pharmaceuticals in these ecosystems can lead to unpredictable ecological impacts and responses, and may also have an impact on human health. At the same time the identification and quantification of these chemicals, to a large extent remains a subject to scientific investigation than part of a thorough monitoring programme. Their biological effects on aquatic organisms are mainly recognized experimentally and often using concentrations far exceeding environmentally relevant levels. This review paper defines the main sources of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment, discusses the fate of these compounds and summarizes the current state-of-the-art of pharmaceutical monitoring in Polish surface waters.
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Ewa Olkowska, Marek Ruman, Anna Kowalska and Żaneta Polkowska
Non-ionic surface active agents are a diverse group of chemicals which have an uncharged polar head and a non-polar tail. They have different properties due to amphiphilic structure of their molecules. Commercial available non-ionic surfactants consist of the broadest spectrum of compounds in comparison with other types of such agents. Typically, non-ionic compounds found applications in households and industry during formulation of cleaning products, cosmetics, paints, preservative coatings, resins, textiles, pulp and paper, petroleum products or pesticides. Their are one of the most common use class of surfactants which can be potential pollution sources of the different compartment of environment (because of they widely application or discharging treated wastewaters to surface water and sludge in agricultural). It is important to investigate the behavior, environmental fate of non-ionic surfactants and their impact on living organisms (they are toxic and/or can disrupt endocrine functions). To solve such problems should be applied appropriated analytical tools. Sample preparation step is one of the most critical part of analytical procedures in determination of different compounds in environmental matrices. Traditional extraction techniques (LLE - for liquid samples; SLE - for solid samples) are time and solvent-consuming. Developments in this field result in improving isolation efficiency and decreasing solvent consumption (eg SPE and SPME - liquid samples or PLE, SFE and MAE - solid samples). At final determination step can be applied spectrophotometric technique, potentiometric titrametration or tensammetry (determination total concentration of non-ionic surfactants) or chromatographic techniques coupled with appropriated detection techniques (individual analytes). The literature data concerning the concentrations of non-ionic surfactants in the different compartments of the environment can give general view that various ecosystems are polluted by those compounds.
Magdalena Borowiec, Paulina Polańska and Józef Hoffmann
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Octel Performance Chemicals, EDDS a readily biodegradable chelant that can directly replace EDTA and phosphonates, UK awards for Green chemical technology, 2002 .
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Ewa Olkowska, Marek Ruman, Anna Kowalska and Żaneta Polkowska
Surface active agents (SAA) with negative charge of polar group are named as anionic compounds. They are the main constituent of most products containing synthetic surfactants. The linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), alkyl ethoxysulfates (AES) and alkyl sulfates (AS) are typically applied from this class of compounds. Those surfactants are ingredients of household detergents and cleaners, laundry detergents, cosmetic etc. Moreover they can be applied in the paper, textile and tanning industry as optical brighteners, dispersant, wetting and suspending agents. They can be substrates in the formulation of different products like dyes, pigments, pesticides, exchange resins, plasticizers and pharmaceuticals. Anionic surfactants after use are passed into sewage-treatment plants, where they are partially degraded and adsorbed to sewage sludge (applied in agriculture fields). Finally, the anionic SAA or their degradation products are discharged into surface waters and onto bottom sediments, soils or living organisms. Therefore, it is important (widely application, bioaccumulation, toxicity for living organisms) to investigate the environmental fate of those class of compounds in more details. This research involves determination the concentration of anionic surfactants with use appropriated analytical techniques in environmental samples The official methodology for determination of anionic SAA in liquid samples is based on the ion-pair reaction of these analytes compounds with methylene blue (MB) and an extraction with toxic solvent chloroform. During isolation step of anionic compounds from solid samples are employed Soxhlet and ultrasonic-assisted extraction techniques with use of methanol or mixture of other organic solvents as extraction medium. To overcome disadvantages of those traditional techniques were applied following techniques at sample preparation step from liquid and solid matrices: solid-phase extraction (SPE) and solid-phases microextraction (SPME); accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), respectively. For estimate total concentration of anionic analytes in extracts the spectrophotometric technique is used (as official regulation). For determination concentration of individual analytes were applied gas (derivatization step requires) and liquid chromatography mainly with mass spectrometry technique. The presence of anionic surface active agents was confirmed in various ecosystems (liquid and solid environmental samples).
Zane Vincevica-Gaile, Maris Klavins, Vita Rudovica and Arturs Viksna
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József Zsembeli, Lúcia Sinka, Arzu Rivera-García, Krisztina Czellér, Géza Tuba, Koloman Krištof and Pavol Findura
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BOROWIAK, K. – NIEWIADOMSKA, A. – SULEWSKA, H. – SZYMANSKA, G. – GLUCHOWSKA, K. – WOLNA
Maciej Balawejder, Radosław Józefczyk, Piotr Antos and Marcin Pieniążek
International Soil Reference and Information Centre, FAO
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Mihai Dumitras, Dan Maftei, Dragos L. Isac, Anton Airinei and Alin C. Dirtu
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