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This study outlines the main motives of foresters opposing the enlargement of the Białowieża National Park to include areas managed by the State Forests Holding. The motives were identified using discourse analysis tools based on the semistructured interviews with 36 people representing various groups of actors engaged in the discussion on the management of the Białowieża Forest. The main motives I found are connected to: (1) a vision of how nature should be and the foresters’ mission; (2) fear of losing employment or getting a worse job; (3) the high esteem of the forester profession in local communities and an inferior vocational status of the national park employees; (4) defending the professional prestige of foresters and the State Forests Holding; (5) competition with national parks over natural areas; (6) forest science; (7) the wish to continue hunting in the Białowieża Forest; (8) bottom-up pressure on the State Forests Holding employees. The major conflict potential in the discourse around the Białowieża Forest is connected with the perception of its unique natural values and methods of protection. As a result, two opposing coalitions have formed: one supporting forestry interests and one encouraging conservation. The discourse of the forestry-supporting coalition is strengthened by an epistemic community of forest scientists. Some arguments presented by the foresters pushing for a continuation of forest management in Białowieża also indicate the involvement of path dependency, which, in combination with large differences between the coalitions, does not allow for optimism regarding the resolution of the conflict.


Delimitation and characterization of areas of conflict are essential to assess suitability of land for different activities carried out in the field of rational land use. In the paper, delimitation of the conflict areas and conflicts categorization in terms of possibility of their overcoming, the scale of the range and the period of their occurrence exemplified by urban - rural commune Stary Sącz have been presented. The software ArcGIS 10.1, the method of maps superimposing and analysis of interactions between different geoenvironmental factors have been applied to obtain the goal of the investigation. Specific geological structure together with morphological and climatic conditions in Stary Sącz commune create ideal conditions for occurrence of con-flict areas on the background of the geological conditions. Accurate and early recognition of these conflicts - existing and potential ones, is a prerequisite for the environmental risk prevention and elimination of its effects through the proper preparation of planning documents and development plans and programs.


This article presents research on the socio environmental impact of refugees on their host communities. We assessed the challenges of refuge populations to their host community in north western Tigray, Ethiopia, where the Eritrean refugees are settled,. Primary data was produced from semi-structured questionnaires and a random sampling technique deploying a logistic regression model to describe the relationship between the socio-environmental changes of the host community. Results suggested 96% of the sample respondents confirmed changes of tree species and forest coverage on community farms was observed during the study period. Similarly, change in forest coverage and changes in tree species are strongly and positively associated with the existence of refugees in the study communities. The dramatic change observed on forest coverage and tree species has led to a progressive decline in natural resources. The study concluded that unplanned human population influxes, especially refugee inflows, affected host communities negatively and the socio-environmental situation has been significantly changed in the study areas. The study highlights the need for holistic intervention to ameliorate the negative impacts and to maintain the sustainable management of natural resources so as to improve the socio-environmental impact of refugees on host communities.

References Babbie E.R. 2009. The basics of social research. Wadsworth/ Cengage Learning, Belmont. Babbie E.R. 2010. The practice of social research. Wadsworth/ Cengage Learning, Belmont. Badera J. 2010. Social conflicts on the environmental background related to development of mineral deposits in Poland. Gosp. Sur. Mineral., 26, 1: 105-125 (Abstract in English). Badera J., Jaksoń, M. 2011. The role of mass-media in miningrelated social-environmental conflicts. Prace Nauk. Inst. Górn. Politech. Wrocławskiej, 132, Studia i Mat. 39, Górn. i geol. XV: 3-9 (English


Located in the south of Ural, Perm Krai, apart from mineral resources and well-developed industry, can boast vast areas that lend themselves to active and qualified tourism, with the quality of an amateur sport. The development of these forms of tourism often requires large expenditure needed for adjusting the space to various types of activity. It also requires a correlation between a given character of the space and the preferred form of tourism, which often leads to environmental conflicts between the development of tourism and nature protection. The article presents the most important elements of the tourism potential in Perm Krai, as well as the sports tourism development perspectives in the context of real and potential environmental conflicts.


Strategies and action plans for sustainable food provisioning and urban food security are in progress in many urban regions both in the global North and South. A number of urgent challenges need to be confronted such as increasing uncertainty and unpredictability related to stronger dependence on a global market for food import, ongoing political unrest and environmental conflicts, increasing resource scarcity and climate warming making food production hazardous. There is an increased vulnerability with respect to food security for human societies, both in developing and developed countries. The food security dimension of access to healthy food is related to equality and poverty and is relevant for cities in the North via the segregation challenges. The food system issue is well-suited for assessing sustainable development since food provisioning is both a multiscale and cross-sectorial issue and thus addresses more than the three dimensions of social, economic and environmental sustainability. How is the planning for sustainable food strategies in urban regions in Europe concordant with the United Nations Global Sustainable Development Goals and with the transition towards sustainable futures? This paper deliberates on using the food system issues for sustainability transition, drawing on the forthcoming 2018 IPBES (Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services) work on pathways for sustainable futures and a recent survey of existing urban food system strategies. Against this background, some reflections are given relevant for the ongoing work on a local urban food strategy for the city of Gothenburg, Sweden.

Environmental Conflicts: Implications for Theory and Practice, Netherlands : Kluwer Publishers, 2001, pp. 95-111. Stern, N. 2006. Stern Review: The Economics of Climate Change. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. UN. 2003. World Population Prospects: The 2002 Revision. Highlights. New York : United Nations.

References Black, J. 2008. Constructing and contesting legitimacy and accountability in polycentric regulatory regimes. – Regulation & Governance, 2(2), 137–164. Buijs, A., Lawrence, A. 2013. Emotional conflicts in rational forestry: Towards a research agenda for understanding emotions in environmental conflicts. – Forest Policy and Economics, 33, 104–111. Eastaugh, C.S., Kangur, A., Korjus, H., Kiviste, A., Zlatanov, T., Velichkov, I., Srdjevic, B., Srdjevic, Z., Hasenauer, H. 2013. Scaling issues and constraints in modelling of forest ecosystems: a review with

References Badera J. 2010. Social conflicts on the environmental backdrop of the development of mineral deposits in Poland. Gosp. Sur. Min., 26, 1: 105–125. Badera J., Kocoń P. 2014. Local community opinions regarding the socio-environmental aspects of lignite surface mining: experiences from central Poland. Energy Policy, 66: 507–516. Barrow C. 2010. How is environmental conflict addressed by SIAs? Environ. Impact Ass. Rev., 30, 5: 293–301. Dickmann F. 2008. Reclamation conditions of opencast mining in the Rhenish Lignite-mining Region (Germany). [in

References Anguelovski I. 2011. Understanding the dynamics of community engagement of corporations in communities: the iterative relationship between dialogue processes and local protest at the Tintaya copper mine in Peru. Soc. & Natural Res. , 24, 4: 384-399. Auty R., Mikesell R. 1998. Sustainable development in mineral economies . Clarendon Press, Oxford. Avci D., Adaman F., Ozkaynak B. 2010. Valuation languages in environmental conflicts: how stakeholders oppose or support gold mining at Mount Ida, Turkey. Ecol. Econ. , 70, 2: 228-238. Azapagic A. 2004