Entrepreneurial processes and passions of online news start-ups
This article examines motivations, rewards and strategies in hyperlocal news entrepreneurship. The material is an interview study with eight entrepreneurs who independently own and manage hyperlocal news sites in Sweden. The conclusion is that the means of the hyperlocal entrepreneur both motivate and create an obstacle for growth. The findings of struggling business models, self-exploitation and civic motivations correspond with previous research in different countries, but alternative perspectives are suggested drawing from theories of entrepreneurial passion and processes. Civic motivations can be viewed as part of entrepreneurial passion, and the precarious nature as a low-risk effectuation process. The effectuator explores possible outcomes of given means and builds the business by controlling the affordable loss rather than calculating the possible return. Along with the obvious difficulty in finding a profitable business model when operating in a very small market, this implies a new perspective on failure and success in hyperlocal entrepreneurship, but also underlines that any measures of support for the sector need to be easily accessible for the individual entrepreneur.
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Maarit Jaakkola, Asta Smedegaard Nielsen, Ari Heinonen, Jutta Haider and Robert W. Vaagan
journalists as network-based actors in society. In the final chapter of the section, Chris Peters and Marcel Broersma urge us to abandon ‘grand normative theories’ of journalism’s societal role and adopt ‘a bottom-up’ approach; that is, to study the actual informational habits of news consumers. In their view, this perspective enables scholars to move beyond prevailing claims about journalism (which they call naïve), and provide the foundation for a civically engaged populace.
Other insights in this section focus on entrepreneurialjournalism (Jane Singer), the journalism