José Alberto Martínez González and Urszula Kobylińska
This article analyses the influence of personal variables on entrepreneurial intentions of students from Poland and Spain. The article presents an integrated structural model that has been developed from a set of student perceptions from both countries. A small number of variables included in the model allows explaining and managing the formation of the intention in the context of higher education. This study provides answers to the following questions: What role do personal variables play as motivation in the formation of entrepreneurship in the case of young people? Is the motivation stronger than self-efficacy? What are the differences in the perceptions and ratings of students in Poland and Spain? How can these variables be enhanced? This work used a causal quantitative methodology based on structural equations (PLS) and the Smart PLS-3.0 program. The PLS model was chosen for its advantages in the study of human behaviour and its optimal predictive potential, and because it allows the use of reflective indicators. In the causal model generated with a sample of 721 respondents from Poland and Spain, it was found that personal values initiated the chain of effects that influenced the attitude and, through it, successively resulted in motivation, self-efficacy and entrepreneurial intentions. Therefore, the subjective variables (values and attitudes) have a positive and significant influence on the action variables (motivation and self-efficacy), and these affect entrepreneurial intentions. The absence of significant regional differences in the responses to the items and the causal relationships of the model suggests the possibility of developing integrated and homogeneous programmes for the entire segment, thereby achieving synergies. The results suppose a theoretical and practical contribution to the promotion of entrepreneur intentions of university students inside and outside the educational context, suggesting a possible effect of personal variables on entrepreneurial intentions.
Economic education is crucial in a modern economy where the knowledge makes for one of many resources. However not only the curriculum matters and the passed contents, but also applied teaching methods. The method related to Case Study may provide a good tool for economy and entrepreneurship teaching, as it focuses not only on the problem, but also on a student and takes into account teamwork. This method facilitates the analysis of enterprising attitude and economic practice, whereas shaping the soft competences stimulates knowledge transmission, facilitates knowledge assimilation and may contribute to development of enterprising attitude.