In order to increase the efficiency of jet engines hard to machine nickel-based and titanium-based alloys are in common use for aero engine components such as blades and blade integrated disks (BLISK). Electrochemical Machining (ECM) provides an economical and effective method for machining high strength and heat-resistant materials into complex shapes with high material removal rate without tool wear and without inducing residual stress. This article presents the physical and mathematical models of electrochemical shaping used in the manufacture of turbine engine parts. The modelling is based on the assumption that the multi-phase mixture filling the gap is treated as two-phase quasi-homogenous medium. The model describes the workpiece shape evolution in time, distribution the local gap size, flow parameters such as the static pressure and the velocity, temperature and void fraction as result of gas generation. The major features of the numerical computer program are briefly described with a selected example of machining a typical turbine blade. The results of computer simulation of effects of setting parameters ECM on accuracy-machined profile are discussed. The improvement of accuracy has been reached by using described sequence of ECM and Pulse ECM processes.
An experiment in cooling of gas turbine nozzle guide vanes was modelled numerically with a conjugate viscous-flow and solid-material heat conduction solver. The nozzle vanes were arranged in a cascade and operated in high-pressure, hot-temperature conditions, typical for first turbine stage in a flow of controlled-intensity, artificially-generated turbulence. The vane cooling was internal, accomplished by 10 channels in each vane with cooling-air flow. Numerical simulations of the experiment were conducted applying two turbulence models of the k-omega family: k-omega-SST and Transition SST implemented in the ANSYS Fluent solver. Boundary conditions for the simulations were set based on conditions of experiment: total pressures and total temperature on inlet to cascade, static pressure on the outlet of the cascade and heat flux on the surface of cooling channels. The values of heat flux on the surface of cooling channels were evaluated based on Nusselt numbers obtained from experiment and varied in time until steady-state conditions were obtained. Two test cases, one with subcritical outlet flow, and another one, with supercritical outlet flow were simulated. The result of experiment – distributions of pressure, surface temperature, and heat transfer coefficients on the vane external surface were compared to results of numerical simulations. Sensitivity of the vane surface temperatures and heat transfer coefficients to turbulence models and to boundary-condition values of parameters of turbulence models: turbulence energy and specific dissipation of turbulence energy was also studied.
A method of modelling of nozzle and rotor blade rows of gas turbine dedicated to simulations of gas turbine performance is proposed. The method is applicable especially in early design stage when many of geometric parameters are yet subject to change. The method is based on analytical formulas derived from considerations of flow theory and from cascade experiments. It involves determination of parameters of gas flow on the mean radius of blade rows. The blade row gas exit angle, determined in turbine design point is a basis for determination of details of blade contour behind the throat position. Throat area is then fixed based on required maximum mass flow in critical conditions. Blade leading edge radius is determined based on flow inlet angle to the blade row in the design point. The accuracy of analytical formulas applied for definition of blade contour details for assumed gas exit angle was verified by comparing the results of analytical formulas with CFD simulations for an airfoil cascade. Losses of enthalpy due to non-isentropic gas flow are evaluated using the analytical model of Craig and Cox, based on cascade experiments. Effects of blade cooling flows on losses of total pressure of the gas are determined based on analytical formulas applicable to film cooling with cooling streams blowing from discrete point along blade surface, including leading and trailing edges. The losses of total pressure due to film cooling of blades are incorporated into the Craig and Cox model as additional factor modifying gas flow velocities.
Ranachowski, Z. et al. (2013). Durability and wear of engineparts - new methods of testing of alloys and composites. Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 35(107), pp. 125-131.
Raunmiagi, Z. (2008). Verification of diesel engine injection valves prior to fuel injector repair. Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie, 14(86), pp. 38-42.
Russo, D. and Duci, S. (2015). From
_stroke_engine_parts/Other_info/air_start_explosions.htm [Accessed: 4.11.2018].
Marine Insight, 2018. How to Prevent Starting Air Line Explosion on Ships? Online: https://www.marineinsight.com/marine-safety/how-to-prevent-starting-air-line-explosion-on-ships/ [Accessed: 4.11.2018].
Myanmar Marine Engineers, 2018. Starting Air Line Explosion . Online: http://myanmarmarineengineers.blogspot.com/2015/06/starting-air-line-explosion.html [Accessed: 4.11.2018].
Ptak, M., Kaczyński, P., Fernandes, F., de Sousa, R.A., 2017a. Computer simulations for