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General considerations on the enforcement (application) of law

Abstract

Law is a system of norms developed and/or recognized by the state as norms guiding human behaviour according to the values of that particular society, establishing rights and obligations, principles and definitions, structures and relationships of social organization and activity that must be obeyed and which, when necessary, are insured by the coercive force of the state. Thus, the development of this system of norms is not an end in itself, but is intended to regulate all social relations, guide human behaviours and achieve the aims of the law. The enforcement of law is the process of translating legal rules into practice, through which the subjects of law obey and execute legal norms, and state authorities apply them, depending on their competence. The enforcement of law depends on a number of factors that shape law, such as its natural framework of existence, the historical context and the ethnic and national particularities of that community’s development, the economic factor or framework, the framework and particularities of the political system, the cultural-ideological framework or factor, the international framework or factor, etc.

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Civil Litigation Procedure – a New Code of Procedure of the Slovak Republic

Summary

On 1 July 2016 the new codes of civil procedure will come into effect with the aim to provide for more effective, simplified and more economically efficient civil procedure, including more efficient enforcement of law in Slovakia. This article explains some of the new legal concepts that may facilitate attainment of this goal.

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Skin Bleaching Narratives Responses from Women Bleaches and Stakeholders in Ghana (1950s – 2015)

Abstract

Based on a qualitative design and a qualitative analysis of responses from primary informants and secondary sources we present a narrative on the attitudes and perception of the Ghanaian on skin bleaching. Based on retrospective and thematic analyses the authors conclude that there is the need for education and enforcement of laws that protect the consumer from patronizing cosmetics that bleach the skin. The study further highlights the role of institutions that are responsible for legislating, regulating, preventing and educating the general public. It is envisaged that this article shall reinvigorate the need for further research and discourses on skin bleaching in Africa and Ghana in particular. Policy makers and policy implementers should be spurred on to make a difference.

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Global Youth Tobacco Use Prevalence and Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke in the Republic of Macedonia in 2008

Global Youth Tobacco Use Prevalence and Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke in the Republic of Macedonia in 2008

Introduction. The WHO and CDC have developed school-based Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) to track tobacco use among young people (13-15), intended to enhance the capacity of countries to design tobacco control programmes. It was undertaken in the Republic of Macedonia in 2002 and 2008.

Aim. The purpose of this paper was to ascertain data on young people's smoking prevalence and exposure to ETS and to propose measures for improvement in tobacco control.

Material and methods. A common methodology is used in GYTS 2008. Some 5824 questionnaires were completed in 75 schools. The overall response rate was 90.09%.

Results. Data indicate that 11.8% of students currently smoke cigarettes. Twenty six percent have ever smoked cigarettes in 2008. Approximately 5% of them are daily smokers. The most of current smokers (34.4%) live in Skopje, while 7.1% live in rural areas. 3.7% of students started smoking under 10, compared to 20% in 2002. Two thirds of students are exposed to ETS at home and 66% in public places. 86.4% of students in all regions thought smoking should be banned in all public places.

Conclusion. Country should engage positive public health attitude, healthy life-style and enforcement of law regulations in practice.

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Transformative Interventions Fostering Mainstreaming of Black South African Women into Managerial Positions in the Private Sector

Abstract

In South Africa, progressive laws, policies and institutions established since 1996 seek to proliferate the representation of black African women in the private sector. However, the sector remains stagnant in giving opportunities to black African women to attain and occupy managerial and leadership positions. Black African women are not yet accepted as an integral of part of decision-making in the private sector contrary to the public sector that has somewhat progressed to place black African women in key decision-making positions in government. Consequently, black African women in the private sector predominately dominate the unskilled labour positions. The underrepresentation of black African women essentially denies them of economic participation and equality in the workplace. It is against the backdrop of this underrepresentation that this article analyses salient transformative legislative interventions that have been put in place to foster ample representation of black African women into managerial positions in the private sector. However, the concern is that the current legislative framework in South Africa does not explicitly make it mandatory for the private sector to achieve a specific target of black African women representation at the top management positions. The article showcases that the glass ceiling in the private sector is real and is nurtured by the organizational culture, policies and strategies which promote exclusion. Therefore, effective implementation and enforcement of laws and policies fostering mainstreaming of black African women into top managerial positions will help in breaking down the glass-ceiling. This will become realizable with the cooperation of all stake holders and role players where there is deliberate effort to empower and enhance the skill and capacity of women through quality training and education that will drive and deliver robust career development.

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Compliance with Ichthyofaunal Diversity Conservation Measures in Lake Lanao, Lanao Del Sur Province (Philippines)

Broken Net, Improving Enforcement of Laws Regulating Cyanide Fishing in the Calamianes Group Of Islands, Philippines, SPC Live Reef Fish Information Bulletin, 15. 5. Espectato L. N. and Serofia G. D., 2014 – Descriptive study of the fisheries registration and licensing system in selected municipalities of Panay Island, Philippines, Journal of Environmental Science and Management , 17, 2, 69-77. 6. Fabinyi M., 2007 – Illegal Fishing and Masculinity in the Philippines, A Look at the Calamianes Islands, Philippine Studies, 55, 4, 509. 7. Frey D. G

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The Link Between Economic Growth, Crime and Deterrence Measures in Nigeria

bounds test approach. Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies 7, no. 1, pp.115-125. 30. Stigler, G. J. (1974). The optimum enforcement of laws- essays in the economics of crime and punishment. Journal of Political Economy 78, pp.526-536. 31. Svensson, R. (2013). An Examination of the Interaction between morality and deterrence in Offending: A Research Note. Crime & Delinquency XX, no. X, pp.1 -16. 32. Vigne, N. L., & Samuels, J. (2012). The Growth & Increasing Cost of the Federal Prison System: Drivers and

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Evolutionary psychology, economic freedom, trade and benevolence

). Passion within Reason: The Strategic Role of the Emotions , NY: Norton. FRANK, M.C., EVERETT, D.L., FEDORENKO, E., and GIBSON, E. (2008). Number as a cognitive technology: Evidence from Pirahã language and cognition. Cognition , 108 (3), 819-824. DOI: 10.1016/j.cognition.2008.04.007 FRIEDMAN, D. (1979). Private Creation and Enforcement of Law - A Historical Case, Journal of Legal Studies , 8(2): 399 - 415. DOI: 10.1086/467615 FRIEDMAN, M. (2008). “We Have Socialism, Q.E.D.” New York Times , October 18; http://www.nytimes.com/2008/10/19/opinion/19

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Bureaucracy and Emotions - Perspectives across Disciplines

administrative cultures. On the one end of the scale, there is a pronounced legalist administrative culture in which administration is understood merely as the enforcement of law. From a contemporary perspective, i.e. from a more poignant point of view, this is the German administration. At the other end of the scale is an administrative model in which administration is viewed as an instrument for enforcing political decisions. Put simply, the usability of the findings from the debate on »law and emotions«, and also on the »sense of law« depends on the respective legalistic

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Posner’s Folly: The End of Legal Pragmatism and Coercion’s Clarity

cannot be, and should not be, prevented from influencing the formulation and enforcement of law—they cannot any more than social attitudes toward, say, dogs and other animals can, or should, be prevented from influencing scientists’ attitudes toward animals. I suspect the choice of rats for so much scientific experimentation is not a purely scientific one. But when they impair the precision needed, these influences necessarily become negative in both spheres, the legal and the scientific. Unfortunately, judges do not rigidly distinguish between the simple application

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