Energy aspects are fundamental to the design of electric drive systems. This article describes energy performance for asynchronous electric drives based on various control methods. These electric drives comparison shows that vector control methods have a significant advantage over scalar control methods. The asynchronous electric drive mathematical description is based on vector control theory and main component method. Equations, obtained by mathematical description, allow calculating of the currents, voltages and electric power at the output when the electromagnetic torque and speed machine are set. Energy characteristics of the asynchronous drive were obtained with the use of the MATLAB-SIMULINK simulation program.
Energy characteristic of a processor allocator and a network-on-chip
Energy consumption in a Chip MultiProcessor (CMP) is one of the most important costs. It is related to design aspects such as thermal and power constrains. Besides efficient on-chip processing elements, a well-designed Processor Allocator (PA) and a Network-on-Chip (NoC) are also important factors in the energy budget of novel CMPs. In this paper, the authors propose an energy model for NoCs with 2D-mesh and 2D-torus topologies. All important NoC architectures are described and discussed. Energy estimation is presented for PAs. The estimation is based on synthesis results for PAs targeting FPGA. The PAs are driven by allocation algorithms that are studied as well. The proposed energy model is employed in a simulation environment, where exhaustive experiments are performed. Simulation results show that a PA with an IFF allocation algorithm for mesh systems and a torus-based NoC with express-virtual-channel flow control are very energy efficient. Combination of these two solutions is a clear choice for modern CMPs.
References 1. Chang, R.W. (1966) Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing. U.S. Patent 3388455. 2. Prasad, R. (2004) OFDM for Wireless Communications systems. Artech House Publishers. 3. Ghosh, A., Zhang, J., Andrews, J.G., and Muhamed, R. (2004) Fundamentals of LTE. Prentice Hall. 4. Gangwar, A., Bhardwaj, M. (2012) An Overview: Peak to Average Power Ratio in OFDM system & its Effect. International Journal of Communication and Computer Technologies, Volume 01, Number 2, pp. 22-25. 5. Uryvsky, L. and Osypchuk, S. (2013) OFDM signal energycharacteristics
The operating field of a hydrostatic drive system parameters of the energy efficiency investigations of pumps and hydraulic motors
The operating field of hydrostatic drive system is presented. Subdivision of the hydraulic motor and pump work parameters into parameters independent of and dependent on the operation of displacement machines and the system is justified. A research project is proposed aimed at development of methods determining the energy characteristics of pumps and rotational hydraulic motors as well as modified methods of determining the energy characteristics of hydrostatic drive systems with selected structures of hydraulic motor speed control. The paper is an extended version of reference .
In this paper results of influence of building-installation system parameters on value of energetic coefficients were calculated. Three types of buildings (standard, energy saving and low energy) with heating surface of 100, 150 i 200 m2 were used. The above types of buildings differ on thermal barrier and heating system efficiency. The influence of the gravity and mechanical ventilation systems on the final heat energy of different kinds of houses was shown. Parameters of the certificate for energy characteristics of building were used. Mathematics models of influence of thermal barrier parameters and heating surface on the value of energy characteristics, namely final energy EF, primary energy EP and useful energy EU were established. Influence of such parameters as heating energy factors, ventilation system and energy sources on the energy efficiency improvement of buildings was analyzed. The building environmental assessment system was proposed on the base of energetic and ecological analysis of houses.
Joined-wing aircraft due to its energy characteristics is a suitable configuration for electric aircraft when designed properly. However, because of the specific for this aircraft phenomenons (e.g. static indeterminacy of structure, aerodynamic interference of lifting surfaces) it demands more complicated methods to model its behavior than a traditional aircraft configurations. For these reasons the aero-structural optimization process is proposed for joined-wing aircrafts that is suitable for preliminary design. The process is a global search, modular algorithm based on automatic geometry generator, FEM solver and aerodynamic panel method. The range of aircraft was assumed as an objective function. The algorithm was successfully tested on UAV aircraft. The improvement of 19% of total aircraft range is achieved in comparison to baseline aircraft. Time of evaluation of this global search algorithm is similar to the time characteristic for local optimization methods. It allows to reduce the time and costs of preliminary design of joined-wing.
The article presents an analysis of the need to introduce pro-ecological solutions at the fuel sector of industry, resulting from dynamic economic development, and environment protection requirements. The forecasts on the number of vehicles in the world and the subsequent growth of interest in alternative fuels are presented. The advantages of using these fuels as compared to petroleum fuels and electricity are described. The presented analysis emphasizes the context of EU legislation on environmental requirements. At the same time, it was pointed out the need to obtain the required technical and energy characteristics of alternative fuels, the competitive costs of their production, and important environmental aspects. Taking into account these premises and the principle of circular economy closed circuit, alternative fuels from organic waste, in particular from enormous amounts of organic non-biodegradable wastes (packaging, multi-material fabric, rubber, tires) were proposed. It has been shown that thermal decomposition by thermolysis, described briefly in the article, can be a method suitable for a wide economic application within the alternative fuel production system. Based on literature data and own experience, it has been found that the quality of fuels (oil, gas) obtained from the thermal decomposition of organic and mixed waste is not different from the requirements for the best quality raw materials used in the production of petrol and may even exceed the properties of petroleum. Introduction of the system of regional production and distribution of alternative fuels from waste could be remarkable driver of small towns and rural areas revitalization and development, while supporting build up and improvement of local communities.
, G., Energycharacteristics of the hydraulic system with proportional control of cylinder, fed by a constant capacity pump in a constant pressure and variable pressure system (in Polish), Doctor dissertation, Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Ocean Engineering and Ship Technology, Gdansk 2010.  Skorek, G., Energy efficiency of a hydrostatic drive with proportional control compared with volumetric control , Polish Maritime Research, Vol. 03, pp. 14-19 Gdansk 2013.
References  Paszota, Z., Energy losses in hydrostatic drive. Monography , LAP Lambert, Acadamic Publishing, p. 570, Saarbrucken 2015.  Piątek, D., Study of energetic behaviour of the cylinder as a result of the throttling control structure , VII Conference: Shipbuilding and Ocean Engineering, Integrated Transport, University Publishing, pp. 184-192, Gdansk 2004.  Pietrzak, M., Okularczyk, W., The efficiency of the hydraulic cylinder , Hydraulics and Pneumatics, No. 2, pp. 21-24, Wroclaw 2012.  Skorek, G., Energycharacteristics of a hydraulic
of power increase opposite to the direction of power flow , LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, Saarbrucken 2016.  Skorek, G., Energycharacteristics of the hydraulic system with proportional control of cylinder, fed by a constant capacity pump in a constant pressure and variable pressure system (in Polish), Doctor dissertation, Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Ocean Engineering and Ship Technology, Gdansk 2010.  Skorek, G., Energy efficiency of a hydrostatic drive with proportional control compared with volumetric control , Polish Maritime