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Processing Speed as an Endophenotypic Marker of Paranoid Schizophrenia

, Calkins ME, Ragland JD, Pogue-Geile MF, et al. Neurocognitive endophenotypes in a multiplex multigenerational family study of schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 2007;164:813-9. 37. Keefe RS, Silverman JM, Mohs RC, Siever LJ, Harvey PD, Friedman L, et al. Eye tracking, attention, and schizotypal symptoms in nonpsychotic relatives of patients with schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1997;54:169-76. 38. Egan MF, Goldberg TE, Gscheidle T, Weirich M, Rawlings R, Hyde TM Relative risk for cognitive impairments in siblings of 11patients with schizophrenia. Biol

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„Movement reactions” in the Hermann Rorschach Test. Part 2 Testing parents of a child suffering from schizophrenia and parents of healthy children


Introduction: The specific character of Rorschach test responses of parents who had a child with schizophrenia has been reported many times. The analysis presented in this paper is focused on responses commenting on movement seen in the inkblots. According to Zygmunt Piotrowski, these responses reflect the prototypal role – self-concepts and a certain pattern of responding that can be understood as phenomena related to the concept of self.

Material and method: I used the Rorschach test to examine 32 couples of parents who had a child suffering from paranoid schizophrenia (as defined in DSM-IV) and 21 couples of parents who had only healthy children.

Results: Parents of schizophrenic children gave significantly fewer human movement responses than parents of healthy children, and some features of these responses give them a specific character. The groups of fathers differed from each other to a greater degree than the groups of mothers. The analysis of relationships between movement responses and shading (chiaroscuro) responses, which are regarded as a measure of anxiety, revealed significant associations in the case of some movement qualities. The exception was that movement quality which is referred to as blocked movement and blocked-posture movement in Piotrowski’s interpretive scheme. All movement qualities globally considered were significantly correlated with anxiety, the exceptions being the group of parents of healthy children and the group of all fathers.

Discussion: The smaller number of human movement responses found in the group of parents of schizophrenic children may attest to these people’s lower psychological maturity, which is associated with a less distinctly formed prototypal role. Moreover, certain specific features of these responses can be interpreted as a sign of difficulties in expressing this role. The cooccurrence of movement responses with shading responses, which are treated as a sign of anxiety, was not always consistent with expectations; this should be considered a reason to reflect on the psychological meaning of these responses and on the possible return to Rorschach’s original views.

Conclusions: The results of the study suggest lower maturity in the case of parents of schizophrenic children, manifesting itself in a less strongly developed prototypal role and certain difficulties in expressing this role. Based on the analysis of the cooccurrence of movement responses and responses commenting on the shading present in the inkblots, it is possible to conclude that there is a need for a new psychological interpretation of these responses.

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Analysis of independent components of cognitive event related potentials in a group of ADHD adults


In the last decade, many studies have tried to define the neural correlates of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The main aim of this study is the comparison of the ERPs independent components in the four QEEG subtypes in a group of ADHD adults as a basis for defining the corresponding endophenotypes among ADHD population.

Sixty-seven adults diagnosed as ADHD according to the DSM-IV criteria and 50 age-matched control subjects participated in the study. The brain activity of the subjects was recorded by 19 channel quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) system in two neuropsychological tasks (visual and emotional continuous performance tests). The ICA method was applied for separation of the independent ERPs components. The components were associated with distinct psychological operations, such as engagement operations (P3bP component), comparison (vcomTL and vcom TR), motor inhibition (P3supF) and monitoring (P4monCC) operations.

The ERPs results point out that there is disturbance in executive functioning in investigated ADHD group obtained by the significantly lower amplitude and longer latency for the engagement (P3bP), motor inhibition (P3supF) and monitoring (P4monCC) components. Particularly, the QEEG subtype IV was with the most significant ERPs differences comparing to the other subtypes.

In particular, the most prominent difference in the ERPs independent components for the QEEG subtype IV in comparison to other three subtypes, rise many questions and becomes the subject for future research.

This study aims to advance and facilitate the use of neurophysiological procedures (QEEG and ERPs) in clinical practice as objective measures of ADHD for better assessment, subtyping and treatment of ADHD.

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Verbal working memory in ADHD children

, 10, 1033-1041. Castellanos, F. X., Tannock R (2002). Neuroscience of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: The search for endophenotypes. Nature Reviews Neuroscience , 3, 617-628. DuPaul, G. J., Power, T. J., Anastopoulos, A. D., & Reid, R. (1998). ADHD Rating Scale — IV: Checklists, Norms, and Clinical Interpretation. New York: Guilford Press. Gruber, O. & von Cramon, D. Y. (2001). Domain-Specific distribution of working memory processes along human prefrontal and parietal

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Epigenetic aspects in schizophrenia etiology and pathogenesis

. Bicker S, Schratt G. MicroRNAs: tiny regulators of synapse function in development and disease. J Cell Mol Med 2008;12:1466-76 5. Feng J, Sun G, Yan J, et al. Evidence for X-chromosomal schizophrenia associated with microRNA alterations. PloS One 2009;4:1-11. 6. Kim VN. MicroRNA biogenesis: coordinated cropping and dicing. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2005;6: 376-85. 7. Stoyanov DS. The endophenotype project and the Validation theory: integration of neurobiology and psychiatry. Folia Medica 2010;52(1):18-26. 8

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Mitochondrial DNA Mutations in two Bulgarian Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

, Imtiaz F. Mitochondrial energy-deficient endophenotype in autism. Am J Biochem Biotech. 2008; 4(2): 198-207. 5. Rossignol DA, Bradstreet JJ. Evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction in autism and implications for treatment. Am J Biochem Biotech. 2008; 4(2): 208-217. 6. Palmieri L, Persico AM. Mitochondrial dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders: cause or effect? Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010; 1797(6-7): 1130 -1137. 7. Pons R, Andreu AL, Checcarelli N, Vila MR, Engelstad K, Sue CM, et al. Mitochondrial DNA abnormalities and

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Cognitive Impairment in Schizophrenia, Neurotransmitters and the New Atypical Antipsychotic Aripiprazole

PD. Neuropsychological impairments in schizophrenia: Integration of performance-based and brain imaging findings. Psychol Bull 2007;153(5):833-58. 14. Gur RE, Nimgaonkar VL, Almasy L, et al. Neurocognitive endophenotypes in a multiplex multigenerational family study of schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 2007;164:813-19. 15. Jones PB, Buckley PF, Kessler D. Schizophrenia. London: Elsevier, Churchill and Livingstone 2006. p. 65-89. 16. Emsley R, Oosthuizen P. Evidence based pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia. Int J

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Expression of Symptoms of the Most Common Comorbid Mental Disorders in Slovenian Alcohol Addicted Patients

endophenotypes. Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2005; 7: 153-63. 8. Enoch MA, Goldman D. The genetics of alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Curr Psychiatry Rep 2001; 3: 144-51. 9. Schneider U, Altmann A, Baumann M, Bernzen J, Bertz B, et al. Comorbid anxiety and affective disorder in alcohol-dependent patients seeking treatment: the first Multicentre Study in Germany. Alcohol Alcohol 2001; 36: 219-23. 10. Pettinati HM, O‘brien CP, Dundon WD. Current status of co-occurring mood and substance use disorders: a new therapeutic target. Am J

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Comparison of selected clinical and personality variables in alcohol–dependent patients with or without a history of suicide attempts

Alcohol Dependent Patients. Sci Rep. 2016;6:19373. 8. Witt K, Lubman DI. Effective suicide prevention: Where is the discussion on alcohol? Aust N Z J Psychiatry.2018;52(6):507–8. 9. Mann JJ, Arango VA, Avenevoli S, Brent DA, Champagne FA, Clayton P, et al. Candidate Endophenotypes for Genetic Studies of Suicidal Behavior. BiolPsychiatry.2009;65(7):556–63. 10. Cult Med Psychiatry. 2018. 11. Chang Q, Chan CH, Yip PSF. A meta-analytic review on social relationships and suicidal ideation among older

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Unification Strategies in Cognitive Science

sketches. Synthese, 183(3), 283-311. Ponseti, J., Bosinski, H. A., Wolff, S., Peller, M., Jansen, O., Mehdorn, H. M., ... Siebner, H. R. (2006). A functional endophenotype for sexual orientation in humans. NeuroImage, 33(3), 825-833. Popper, K. R. (1959). The logic of scientific discovery. New Yorker, The. Hutchinson. Quine, W. V. (1948). On What There Is. The Review of Metaphysics, 2(5), 21-38. Ramón y Cajal, S. (1990

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