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. & Lansdown, R.V. 2011: European Red List of Vascular Plants. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 87 pp. Blečić, V. & Krasniqi, F. 1971: Endemic plant community of Forsythia and Milkworts ( Polygalo-Forsythietum europaeae Blečić i Krasniqi) in South-Western Serbia. (Zajednica endemičnog sibljaka forzicije i krstusca ( Polygalo-Forsythietum europaeae Blečić et Krasniqi) u jugozapadnoj Srbiji.) Glasnik Republičkog Zavoda za Zaštitu Prirode - Prirodnjačkog Muzeja Titograd 4: 35–40. Blečić, V., Tatić, B. & Krasniqi, F. 1969: Three endemic plant


Knautia sarajevensis is an endemic plant of the Dinaric Alps and is mainly distributed on Bosnian Mountains. Due to the quite large flower heads and easy maintenance, this plant has a potential use as a substitute ornamental plant for K. arvensis in perennial beds. The current study evaluated the germination process in different treatments in an attempt to suppress dormancy and increase germination rate, and to develop a successful protocol for micropropagation. An over 60% germination rate was achieved through cultivation of seeds on MS basal medium with reduced mineral nutrient composition and the absence of sucrose. On the other hand, a below 10% germination rate was achieved with untreated seeds. Suppression of apical dominance was achieved through application of high concentrations of kinetin, apical shoot decapitation or cultivation of shoots in liquid media. Overall, liquid cultures were more successful as a micropropagation system for this plant. Shoots spontaneously developed roots on multiplication treatments and were successfully acclimatized. Moreover, phenolic compound profile was analysed in the light of the possible medicinal potential of this plant. Variable amounts of total phenolic compounds as well as individual phenolics were recorded, according to treatment and solidification of media. An increase in rosmarinic acid content was reported for kinetin treatments and acclimatized plants comparing to mother plants in natural habitat. The present study shows that choice of cytokinin concentration, explant type as well as culture type influences not only shoot proliferation and apical dominance suppression but also in vitro production of phenolics.

References A hmedullah M. & N ayar M. P. 1986. Endemic Plants of Indian region. Vol. 1 (Peninsular India). Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta. A nnamalai R. 2004. Tamil Nadu Biodiversity Strategy Action Plan. 143 pp. Tamil Nadu Forest Department, Government of Tamil Nadu, Chennai. A reendran G. & R ao P. 2006. Vegetation types of the southern Eastern Ghats – A Remote Sensing Perspective. WWF India, New Delhi, India. B alachandran N. 2016. Perspectives of Plant Diversity in Tropical Dry Evergreen Forest along the Coromandel coast of Tamil Nadu and

characteristics and rarity of endemic plants from southeast France and Corsica: implications for biodiversity conservation. Biological Conservation , 80 (3): 269–281. M illaku , F., E lezaj , I., B erisha , N., 2018. Sympatric area and ecology of some Tulipa species in the West Balkan Peninsula. Thaiszia Journal of Botany , 28 (1): 35–47. M illaku , F., H eiselmayer , P., R exhepi , F., K rasniqi , E., E ichberger , C h , H aziri , A., 2008. Endemic, stenoendemic and relic plants in serpentines of Kosovo. Sauteria , 16: 149


Morphological features of the endemic Erodium somanum are investigated based on the specimens collected from natural populations from Soma in Manisa. Almost all morphological characteristics are expanded and some morphological characteristics are firstly determined in this study. E. somanum is a dioecious species and in this study drawings of male and female individuals are given for the first time. An umbel is 3-5 flowered in female plants and 6-11 flowered in male plants, pedicels accrescent to 20-25 mm in fruit. Flower morphology was identified in detail and drawings are given for the first time. Stigma color ranges from yellow to red in populations. The fruit is long-beaked 4.8-8 cm, stout and adpressed pilose, glandular below. Mericarp morphology investigated for fruit characters has a special diagnostic value for systematic studies. The mericarp micromorphology and seed micromorphology were determined for the first time. Mericarp size 9-12 mm, mericarps have two apical shallow pits (foveoles) without furrow beneath. Mericarp surface ornamentation is foveate with crowded bristles of dissimilar size, some longer and others shorter. Mericarp pit is crowded with eglandular hairs and some sparse, long-stalked glands which are also at the start of the awn. Seed size is 4.5-6×1.5-2 mm, seed type is narrowly ovate, seed surface is ruminate.

-50. Retrieved January 7, 2017 from Thomson, J.D. (1982). Patterns of visitation by animal pollinators. Oikos, 39 (2), 241-250. DOI: 10.2307/3544491 Velchev, V. (ed.) 1992: Atlas of the endemic plants in Bulgaria . Sofia: Bulg Acad. Sci. Publ. House.

, S., Magin, G., Hilton-Taylor, C., (2002). Habitat Loss and Extinction in the Hotspots of Biodiversity. Conservation Biology 16:909-923. Bruner, A.G., Gullison, R.E., Rice, R.E., Da Fonseca, G.A.B. (2001). Effectiveness of Parks in Protecting Tropical Biodiversity. Science 291:125-128. Cañadas, E.M., Fenu, G., Peñas, J., Lorite, J., Mattana, E., Bacchetta, G. (2014). Hotspots within hotspots: Endemic plant richness, environmental drivers, and implications for conservation. Biological Conservation 170:282-291. CEPF (Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund) - The

., Dullinger S. & Grabherr G. 2003. A regional impact assessment of climate and land-use change on alpine vegetation. Journal of Biogeography 30: 401-417. eFloras. 2008. Published on the Internet. Essl F., Staudinger M., Stöhr O., Schratt-Ehrendorfer L., Rabitsch W. & Niklfeld H. 2009. Distribution patterns, range size and niche breadth of Austrian endemic plants. Biological Conservation 142: 2547-2558. Favarger C. & Contandriopoulos J. 1961. Essai sur ľendemisme. Berichte Schweizerischen Botanischen Gesselschaft 71: 384-408. Favarger C. 1972 Endemism

Prediction of Dragon's Blood Tree (Dracaena Cinnabari Balf.) Stand Sample Density on Soqotra Island

Dracaena cinnabari Balf. On The Soqotra Island is a spectacural relict of the Tethys tropical forest. This unique endemic plant, producing medicinally valuable sap, used to cover larger areas in the past. Natural regeneration of this species is restricted to inaccessible localities with steep slopes. All seedlings are threatened by goats grazing. Age structure of Dracaena populations indicates maturity and overmaturity depending on browsing.

The objective of this work is to predict growing dynamics of Dragon's Blood Trees in permanent sample plot at Firmihin, where there is the largest existing stand of Dracaena species. The prediction and visualization of variation in abundance of trees over 100 years is based on direct field measurements supported by mathematical calculations. The study presents options in forest regeneration and identifies threats that might occur during the implementation.


Floristic diversity and the composition of vascular plants are described for the moist Afromontane forest (MAF) of Wondo Genet, south-central Ethiopia. A total of 75 (20 x 20 m) quadrats were sampled and data on species identity, abundance, elevation, slope and aspect were recorded. Different diversity indices and ordination techniques were used to analyze the data. A total of 240 plant species including seven endemic plant species were found representing 94 families and 210 genera, of which trees constitute 23.8%, shrubs 25%, herbs 35%, lianas 11.3% and ferns 5%. Cluster and indicator species analyses revealed five plant communities described as: Teclea nobilis-Calpurnia aurea, Erythrococca trichogyne-Millettia ferruginea, Croton macrostachyus-Vernonia hochstetteri, Protea gaguedi-Rhus retinorrhoea and Dodonaea angustifolia-Hypericum quartinianum. Elevation (R2=0.48, P<0.001), slope (R2=0.14, P<0.001) and aspect (R2=0.04, P<0.01) correlated significantly and negatively with species richness, whereas only elevation (R2=0.30, P<0.001) and slope (R2=0.13, P<0.001) related significantly and negatively with abundance. Sørensen’s similarity coefficient indicates that the forest of Wondo Genet is similar to moist montane forests of southwestern and southeastern Ethiopia. Given the high diversity, coupled with the existence of endemic species, ecosystem conservation and restoration strategies with further research are warranted.