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rzecznej Sterna hirundo w Myślęcinku. Leśny Park Kultury i Wypoczynku w Bydgoszczy. Lembicz M., Bogdanowicz A. M., Chmiel J. & Żukowski W. 2009. Carex secalina (Cyperaceae), a critically endangered species of Europe: historic and new localities in Poland. Acta Soc. Bot. Pol. 78(4):311-320. Mauersberger G. 1977. Über die Nestbauweise der einheimischen Möwenarten. Orn. Iber. Mus. Heineanum 2: 47-95. Meusel H., Jäger E. & Weinert E. 1965. Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. I. Text 583 pp., Karten 258 pp. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Jena. Piękoś-Mirkowa H


Eighty-two species or other forms of rare mammals were kept in 19 zoological gardens of the Czech Republic and Slovakia as of 1 January 2016. Two mammal species extinct in the wild (EW category of the IUCN) were bred in the zoos in 2015. Of the kept 29 critically endangered species (CR), 17 bred successfully in 2015, while of the kept 51 endangered species (EN), 25 did. Nine zoos bred more than one third of their kept species belonging to the three categories. The breeding of rare species of perissodactyls and artiodactyls was the most successful in the respective zoos.

): Fitosocjologiczne uwarunkowania ochrony przyrody Beskidu Śląskiego (Karpaty Zachodnie). - Pr. Nauk. Uniw. Śląskiego nr 2418, Wyd. Uniwersytetu Śląskiego, Katowice, 224 pp. Winnicki T. (1999): Zbiorowiska roślinne połonin Bieszczadzkiego Parku Narodowego (Bieszczady Zachodnie, Karpaty Wschodnie). - Monografie Bieszczadzkie, 4: 1-215 (in Polish with English summary). Witkowski Z., Król W. & Solarz W. (eds) (2003): Carpathian List of Endangered Species. WWF and Institute of Nature Conservation, Polish Academy of Science, Vienna-Cracow, 64 pp. Zając A. & Zając M. (eds) (2001


Moss Buxbaumia viridis, considered as an endangered species, was found in a new locality in the Beskid Sądecki range. This paper presents new data about the species together with a summary of previously published stations in this area. All known distribution of the moss in Beskid Sądecki range is presented on the map.

-1049. Kuchcik M. 2006. Heat waves in Poland over the period 1993-2002. Przegl. Geogr. 78(3): 397-412. Lampe M. 1996. Wuchsform, Wuchsrhythmus und Verbreitung der Arten der Zwergbinsengesellschaften. Diss. Bot. 266: 1-355. Latowski K., Zając M. & Zając A. 1988. Lindernia procumbens (Krock.) Philcox. In: A. Jasiewicz (ed.). Materials for knowledge of rare and endangered species of Poland. Part I. Fragm. Flor. Geobot. 33: 416-421. Meusel H., Jäger E., Rauschert S. & Weinert E. 1978. Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. II. Text xi? pp., Karten pp. 259

Mikrorozmnażanie wisienki stepowej (Cerasus fruticosa Pallas)


Black poplar (Populus nigra L.) is a keystone species of riparian softwood forests along riversides in vast areas of Europe, Western Asia and Northern Africa. Since the end of the 20th century, black poplar has been recognized as an endangered species throughout Europe due to the loss of its natural habitat and possible crossbreeding with hybrid poplars. Using twelve nuclear SSR loci, we analysed the genetic structure of four native populations from three river valleys in the northern part of Serbia. All tested loci were highly polymorphic, displaying 8 to 25 alleles per locus, overall 179 detected alleles and an average effective number of alleles 5.87. Observed heterozygosity (overall Ho = 0.703) has been lower than the expected (overall He = 0.808) in each population, which indicates positive mean of fixation index values (overall Fis > 0 (0.132)). An AMOVA analysis revealed that the highest degree of genetic variation occurred within populations (95.33 %) while the genetic variation between populations was really low (4.67 %). High gene flow and no significant loss of allelic diversity have been recorded in the studied populations in Serbia.


Symptoms of anthropogenic changes in the vascular plant flora include the spread of some species groups and the extinction of others. Also habitat condition changes (eutrophication, pollution etc.) and biodiversity loss (at a regional, national and even continental scale) should be mentioned. Numerous papers with rare plant species localities and endangered habitats have been published but the extinction processes and scale of this phenomenon in urban areas where environmental conservation is crucial, are not often analysed. The aim of the present study is to estimate species loss in the vascular plant flora of the town Strzelce Opolskie (Chełm, Silesian Upland) on the basis of the floristic literature and botanical surveys carried out from 2011 to 2013. A comparison has been made between the list of species reported up to 1945 and those species currently occurring in the study area. As a result, a list of 99 species included in the red list of plants of Opole and Silesian voivodeships is presented. Among this group, 45 species are not confirmed after 1945. Numerous extinct and endangered species are from families: Orchidaceae (8 species), Cyperaceae (7 species), Ranunculaceae (7 species) and Lamiaceae (6 species). Strongly represented are species associated with the communities of Festuco-Brometea and Querco- Fagetea classes. From the species presented, 18 species are included in "Red List of Vascular Plants of Poland" (MIREK ET AL. 2006). It was found that the extinct species represent about 7% of Strzelce Opolskie vascular plant flora. It is a focus point for local authorities to protect botanically valuable areas. Actually, the only Miejski Park is under the conservator's protection and there are few individual trees protected due to their age or size.

. Food Chemistry 108: 973-976. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.12.007. CITES 2017. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, Appendices I and II. Decruse S.W., Gangaprasad A., Seeni S., Menon S.V. 2003. Micropropagation and ecorestoration of Vanda spathulata, an exquisite orchid. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 72: 199-202. DOI: 10.1023/A:1022267009531. Dohling S., Kumaria S., Tandon P. 2012. Multiple shoot induction from axillary bud cultures of the medicinal orchid, Dendrobium


Recently, anthropogenic fires in protected areas have become more frequent. I studied the response of the spider community after an extensive summer fire in the ‘Striltsivskyi Steppe’ Reserve in eastern Ukraine. A total of 117 spider species was found in the pre-fire period, 40 species were registered in the first and 89 species in the third post-fire year. Herb-dwelling spiders began to colonize burnt plots in July, when juveniles of the new generation began dispersing. In September, their abundance was similar to that of undisturbed steppe and within three years, the spider assemblages recovered almost completely. Cursorial ground-dwellers in the first post-fire year decreased in species richness and increased in activity density. In the third year, their species diversity and activity density became much higher than in control plots. Some xerophilous species benefited from the fire. Litter dwellers are extremely vulnerable. During the three post-fire years, their numbers and diversity did not recover. Some rare species with a patchy geographical distribution disappeared from the local fauna. Such a reaction of endangered species is the main restriction on the use of fire as a conservation management. The prerequisite for its implementation is maintaining relevant refuges for threatened species.