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Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to examine Japanese society and present contemporary issues with emphasis on the changes in the role, status and preferences of Japanese women within the Japanese society, through the years. The first part of the paper makes an overview on the evolution of the role of women in Japanese society during Shogunate until now, focusing mainly on increasing Japanese women's status within the enterprise. In the second part of the paper, the author exposes the results of several studies on the effects on the marketing of luxury for Japanese women, highlighting the correlation between increased interest to be as competitive in the workplace and enhancing concern for luxury brands.

, Community and Society , 9 (1), 20-38. Goode, W. J. (1960). A theory of role strain. American sociological review , 483-496. Graham, S., & Folkes, V. S. (2014). Attribution theory: Applications to achievement, mental health, and interpersonal conflict . Psychology Press. Granrose, C. S. (2005). Images of women and government in the Chinese cultural heritage: A brief overview. Employment of women in Chinese cultures: Half the sky , 35-45. Greenhaus, J. H., & Beutell, N. J. (1985). Sources of conflict between work and family roles. Academy of management review , 10 (1

Abstract

This paper aims to analyse the employment of women in banking during the Second Polish Republic (i.e. interwar Poland). The banking sector was small in terms of employment. The number of people associated with this sector was 18.1 thousand in 1921 and 31.2 thousand in 1931, which accounted for 0.5-0.6% of all professionally active workers outside the agricultural sector. The banking community was dominated by men, the number of women working in banks was about 6.1 thousand in 1921 and 8.5 thousand in 1931 (30% of all human resources). This paper presents the nature of jobs performed by women, their positions and earnings. The presentation takes a number of forms: according to bank types, groups of voivodeships, size of the town and according to headquarters and branches. In all cases, the activities and earnings of women and men were compared.

Abstract

There is increasing interest in determining the impact that employment of women in management positions may have on corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives. Various authors suggest that gender equality practices should be factored into the broader framework of CSR. Public policy could adopt an ethic that strengthens the moral commitment to social involvement of men and women alike, and expresses public responsibility for women’s experiences in both the public and private spheres. Following this logic, the research question for the present article is: What marketing strategy factors can be utilized by women to influence their attainment of senior managerial positions?

This article deals with the qualitative stage of a mixed method study that will answer the research question. The aim of the qualitative research design is to examine attitudes toward motivational factors and the environment that affect the strategic marketing of women to management positions. The research tool is a semi-structured in-depth interview, followed by a content analysis of data from transcripts. The research population includes ten women of different ages presently employed in managerial positions in Israel’s Ministry of Education. Future research directions and managerial implications are derived from this qualitative study.

Abstract

The article examines the evolution of gender policies in the field of vocational education in Turkey since the beginning of the 20th century up to the present. Schools for girls started to emerge in Turkey at the beginning of the republican era. Their aim was to teach students about gender roles consistent with the trend of modernization and westernization of the new Turkish state. The ideology of a modern conservative party ruling in the Republic of Turkey is based on the traditional role of women as home keepers, while the country’s legislative system undergoes changes that provide women with independency. This policy is full of contradictions, namely, changes in legislation are aimed at improving education and employment of women, while women are encouraged to remain housewives. Despite the fact that women received equal rights to education after the Law on Unification of Education was adopted in 1924, gender inequality is still an issue in modern Turkish society. There is a strong legal framework at the state level and executive authorities that provide girls and women with free access to education and promote learning. Statistical data show that the education system still has many unresolved issues concerning the learning opportunities of girls and their employment. According to recent statistics, a very small group of girls goes on to secondary education in the Republic of Turkey. In 2011, only 24% of girls completed their secondary education that is the lowest level in the countries of OESD. Amazingly low percentage of girls involved in secondary education system can be explained by two objective factors: socioeconomic status of girls′ families and gender discrimination. Vocational schools for girls are designed to resolve this issue.

. Sociology, 44 (6), 1091-1108. DOI: 10.1177/0038038510381605. Cotton, J. (1988). On the decomposition of wage differentials. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 70 (2), 236-243. DOI: 10.2307/1928307. Elias, P. (1990). Part-time work and part-time workers: keeping women in or out. Keeping Woman In, Policy Studies Institute, London. In: S. McRae (ed.), Keeping Women in: Strategies to Facilitate the Continuing Employment of Women in Higher Occupations (pp. 67-81). London: Policy Studies Institute. England, P., Allison, P.D., Wu, Y. (2007). Does bad pay cause occupations

Childhood and Primary Education Statistics. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ EUROSTAT (2017a). Gender Pay Gap statistics. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat EUROSTAT (2017b). Full-Time and Part-Time Employment of Women Statistics. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ EUROSTAT (2017c). Gender Gap in Part-Time Employment in 2016. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ Hašková, H. & Saxonberg, S. & Mudrák, J. (Eds.) (2012). Péče o nejmenší: boření mýtů. Praha: Slon a Sociologický ústav AV ČR. Hašková, H. (2007). Doma, v jeslích

roku działalności [Disputes­committees­–­a­year­of­activity],­Przegląd­Związkowy,­no.­8,­1955,­p.­345. 9 There wasn’t such a situation that from misunderstandings in the unit between men and­women,­always­the­men­came­without­harm,­as­it­was­e.g.­in­PAFAWAG­units,­where­ in­December­1952­the­KC­PZPR­control­team­was­delegated­and­such­request­presented­ in­ the­ report.­ See:­AAn,­KC­PZPR,­ sign.­ 237/XV-7,­ Sprawozdanie­ ekipy­wyjeżdżającej­ w­sprawie­zatrudnienia­kobiet­na­ terenie­woj.­wrocławskiego,­16­grudnia­1952­r.­ [Field­ team­report­regarding­the­employment­of­women