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This essay aims at exploring the controversial and thought-provoking use of flower language and flower imagery in Margaret Fuller’s so-called flower pieces. In a rather unconventional way, this language for women is turned by the writer into a powerful instrument of protest, capable of upsetting stereotypes and common beliefs on women.
Estelle Haan. New York, NY: AMS Press. Gibbons, Orlando. 1612. First set of madrigals and motets of five parts . London: Thomas Snodham. Goldring, Elizabeth et al. 2014. John Nichols’s The progresses and public processions of Queen Elizabeth I: A new edition of the Early Modern sources . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Green, Henry. 1866. Whitney’s Choice of Emblems. A facsimile reprint with an introductory dissertation . London: Lovell Reeve. Green, Henry (ed.). 1871. Andreae Alciato emblematum flumen abundans: Or, Alciat’s emblems in their full stream, being a
George Enesco was a remarkable composer, conductor, teacher, violinist and pianist. He is one of the few “chosen” ones who lived under the emblem of the idea of BEAUTIFUL in its multiple images: by art, in the name of art and under the sign of art. Being in the circuit of authentic spiritual values, his entire pianistic creation is delicate, subtle, refined and elegant but extremely difficult as an artistic technique and expression; it calls for the intelligence accordingly, a lot of common sense, potential of much spiritual unrest, very much scenic experience, by determining the interpreters to very special refinement and expressive elevation, in addition to a worked touché trained in the art of the pianistic expression.
The essay entitled “Food Imagery in Lesley Saunders’ Poetry” expands upon various food issues that will be approached via Gaston Bachelard’s aesthetic theory which situates us in the proximity of a sensible point of objectivity further enlarged upon from a phenomenological perspective that merges the exterior substantiality of food with the reality of imagination. The acquired intimate connotations of the poetess’ food environment are tackled in terms of the inner/outer opposition and the Platonic dialectics that involves old versus new, good versus evil, plenty versus scarcity, revealing the dynamic virtues of “roots,” the emblem of the diversity of food. Our approach to the house, where various types of food are being prepared, in relation to its pivotal functions of dwelling, preparing food and sharing it, turns both the house and food into the unfailing communality and sociality constructs of all places and ages.
The author of the article undertakes an attempt to establish the reasons and manifestations of the increased importance of the religious factor in the policy of contemporary Turkey, as well as to capture the transformations taking place in Turkish religious policy. The author believes that the last-mentioned process strictly corresponds to the phenomena of withdrawal from the model of non-religious autocracy which was one of the main characteristics of Kemalism in favour of the model of a country which is de facto religious. This, in turn, becomes the emblem of Neoosmanism. The parliamentary and presidential elections of June 2018 confirmed the success of the AKP and Erdoğan, and determined the transition of Turkey from the parliamentary system to the presidential system. At that time, there is a propaganda offensive combining nationalist and Islamic slogans. The tangible proof of Turkey’s re-Islamization is the radical increase in the importance of Diyanet – the ministry of religious affairs. This institution also serves foreign policy, often referred to as mosque policy, due to the fact that its focus is put on marking the greatness of the Islamic Turkey around the world. In the research procedure, a method of critical analysis of the content of studies and the available sources were used.
The following dances are most commonly considered nowadays as national dances (or emblems of Polish national culture): the polonaise, the mazur, the krakowiak, the oberek and the kujawiak. These dances form the cultural canon as defined by Andrzej Szpociński (i.e. a constantly revised part of tradition which carries significance outside the domain of dance and is obligatory for all the community members). In Polish musicological studies it has been emphasised that the phenomenon of stereotypisation of native folklore has played a major role in the formation and emergence of emblematic national phenomena. However, some of the phenomena and processes that have taken place during the formation and revision of the national canon cannot be reduced to the idea of creating a stereotype. The author of this paper draws on Maria Janion’s treatment of the categories of myth and phantasm, which can be much more useful for the interpretation especially of borderline or clearly alien phenomena that have frequently found their way into the Polish national dance canon and played a very important role in that canon. The author also discusses the changing functions of dances from the canon, which resulted from external circumstances determined by political events and social processes.
The article analyses theoretical aspects of a city brand definition, applying cases of various brands of Lithuanian cities. A brand is any sign or symbol which helps to distinguish goods or services for one person from the goods or services of another, and which may be represented graphically. The brand can be a variety of symbols, their combination, and other visual manifestations of information, such as words, names, slogans, letters, numbers, drawings, emblems; or spatial characteristics of the product itself – its image, packaging, shape, color, color combination or a combination of all these. City development usually includes an image dimension. The common ground for this is that a well-known toponym often generates events, investments, etc. Many cities are actively positioning and promoting their strategic intentions. Often times a city brand is associated with its fight for investment, tourist numbers, or successful businesses.
Objective: To scrutinize relevant theories applicable to city visual branding; to look through various definitions of the city branding and envisage some advantages and disadvantages they might pose; and to analyze various case studies so that we could summarize the methodologies of why and how we could better position our local products globally.
Methodology: The case study methods were used as part of a complex study and combined with in-depth interviews as well as benchmarking methods from various sources. In-depth interview method was used to obtain expert opinions on the subject. The in-depth interview method helped to analyze logo usage, goals, define pros and cons, and evaluate the results of logo design in urban development. This method was chosen to collect detailed and authentic material based on the attitudes and experiences of those involved in such a creative process.
Findings: The conclusion was reached that since a place prompts a lot of variables, in the future we need to consider more numerous components, such as population, industries, landscape, economies or history, etc. The hypothesis was confirmed about the variables of the city to be further considered for (re)branding, such as the cost, semantic complexity, societal charge, and the dynamics (changeability, or rigidity). As for the methodologies, we arrived at the conclusion that the best way to create a viable city brand is a collaboration between different stakeholders.
Value Added: The article adds to European experts’ suggestion of rethinking the concept of design itself, as until now a one-sided approach to design as a means of schematizing a product has prevailed. This approach, even regulated by Lithuanian law, does not cover the whole process of creating and implementing an idea. “Design is a problem-solving approach that focuses on the user during its development. It can be applied in both the public and private sectors to promote innovation in products, services, processes and even legislation,” says Dr Anna Whicher, expert on design policy and strategy of the European Commission. In other words, design has been increasingly integrated into the science, business, social and service sectors to maximize innovation.
As many as 63 percent of Lithuanian businesses do not use design solutions (product design, stylization or business strategy development) at any stage of production. This figure is below the EU average, where almost half of all businesses already integrate design solutions into their operations. Lithuania is also one of the 13 countries in Europe (out of 28) that does not have design policy documents or a community uniting organization, such as design centers in Great Britain, Denmark, Estonia or other countries. The paper invites Lithuania to re-think its design development policies at large, paying attention to urban design solutions in particular.
Recommendations: In further research, while selecting potential expert for city logo development, it is recommended that priority should be given to (a) responsible experts in strategic / territorial and national policy making or related activities, (b) experts with knowledge of sustainable development, (c) independent sustainable development analysts / consultants / private and academic or who have implemented specific project-based SDs both nationally and internationally. The stakeholders in this process should be representing: 1) Public Sector, 2) NGOs, 3) Private Sector, 4) Academy and 5) Independent Experts.