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References [1] REID, W. M. - BUCHANAN, N. W.: 1984. Bridge approach piling, Piling and Ground treatment, Thomas Telford Ltd, London. [2] PRELOVSKY, B. - NAUGHTON, P. J. - SCOTTO, M. - KEMPTON, G. T.: The Development of Piled Embankments Techniques Over 25 Years. [3] DRUSA, M. - LAMICH, D. et al.: Design Limits of Reinforced Soil Structures in Difficult Geological Conditions, In: SGEM 2013 Proceedings, DOI:10.5593/SGEM2013/BA1.V2/S02.010. [4] DECKÝ, M. - DRUSA, M. - PEPUCHA, Ľ. - ZGÚTOVÁ, K.: Earth Structures of Transport Constructions. Harlow: Essex: Pearson, pp

information systems II: 173–183. CHUCHRO M., PIĘTA A., DWORNIK M., LEŚNIAK A. 2016. Big Data processing strategy for hybrid interpretation of flood embankment multisensor data. Geology, Geophysics and Environment 42, 3: 269-278. DWORNIK M., FRANCZYK A., LEŚNIAK A., KRAWIEC K. 2016. Influence of initial water saturation in earthen levees on results of numerical modelling of infiltration processes. Proceedings of CGW Workshop’16: 23-24. DWORNIK M., FRANCZYK A., LEŚNIAK A., KRAWIEC K. 2017. Influence of initial water saturation in earthen levees on results of numerical

, G., Kilic, H., Hosbas, G., and Ozaydin, K. (2006). Evaluation of the movements of the dam embankments by means of geodetic and geotechnical methods. Journal of Surveying Engineering, 132(1):31-39, doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)0733- 9453(2006)132:1(31) . Hwang, C., Hung, W.-C., and Liu, C.-H. (2008). Results of geodetic and geotechnical monitoring of subsidence for Taiwan High Speed Rail operation. Natural Hazards, 47(1):1-16, doi: 10.1007/s11069-007-9211-5 . ISO (2015). Geotechnical investigation and testing - Geotechnical monitoring by field instrumentation - Part 1

References 1. S. Leroueil, F. Tavenas, F. Brucy, P. La Rochelle, R. Marius, Behavior of destructured natural clays, Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, ASCE 105(GT6): 759-778, 1979. 2. S. Pietruszczak, G.N. Pande, Description of soil anisotropy based on multi-laminate framework, Short communication, International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics 25, 195-208, 2001. 3. Finnish National Road Administration, Competition to calculate settlements at the Haarajoki test embankment. Competition programme, Competition Materials

REFERENCES 1. Coufal R., Olszewska M.: Analiza parametrów konsolidowanego podłoża nasypem z gruntu rodzimego na Ostrowie Grabowskim w Szczecinie , Inżynieria i Budownictwo, 5/2017, Warsaw, 2017, 260-262. 2. Farrell E. R.: Organic/peat soils , ICE manual of geotechnical engineering. Institution of Civil Engineers, Glasgow, 2013, 463-479. 3. Hastlen J., Wolski W.: Embankments on Organic Soils , ELSEVIER, Amsterdam, 1996. 4. Lechowicz Z., Szymański A.: Odkształcenia i stateczność nasypów na gruntach organicznych, cz. II Metodyka obliczeń , Wydawnictwo SGGW

, and sometimes even during them, the damage and destruction of these structures occur very often, resulting from excessive settlements and deformations of road embankments, which in the extreme cases assume the landslide forms. The most sensitive spot on a road sequence is the connection of bridge structure with the road embankment. Stresses acting on the subsoil under the road embankment base are lower than those occurring under the bridgehead foundation. Moreover, the depth and method of bridgehead foundation significantly differs from the embankment foundation

landscapes. Biological Conservation, 142(7), 1322-1332. DOI: 10.1016/j. biocon.2008.12.036 Moroń D., Skórka P., Lenda M., Rożej-Pabijan E., Wantuch M., Kajzer-Bonk J., Celary W., Mielczarek L.E., Tryjanowski P. (2014). Railway embankments as new habitat for pollinators in an agricultural landscape. PLoS ONE, 9(7), e101297. DOI:10.1371/journal. pone.0101297. Nicolson SW, Thornburg RW. Nectar chemistry. In: Nicolson SW., Nepi M., Pacini E. (Eds) Nectaries and Nectar, Springer Dordrecht. 2007; pp 215-263 Osborne J.L., Clark S.J., Morris R.J., Williams I.H., Riley J.R., Smith

prediction for gravity retaining walls on granular soils, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Elsevier, Oxford, 2011, 31, 391-400. [6] OLSON S.M., STARK T.D., Yield Strength Ratio and Liquefaction Analysis of Slopes and Embankments, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 2003, 129(8), 727-737. [7] Plaxis 2D Manuals, 2010, electronic documentations.

Abstract

The aim of this paper was to find an answer to the question about the possibility of using steel welded mesh in building the retaining walls of gabion baskets. In light of the currently used gabion structure solutions, among which double-woven mesh is much more popular, the focus was put on the possibility of using welded mesh. A numerical analysis was conducted to examine the behavior of welded and woven mesh subjected to various loads and the results obtained for both types of mesh were directly compared. The maximal displacement in mesh nodes was admitted as the measurement of the system behavior (in the case of both undamaged and damaged mesh).

REFERENCES 1. M. Bukowski, P. Łysiak, R. Oleszek, W. Trochymiak, “Reasons of Emergence of Differences in Soil Settlement between the Viaduct and the Embankment on Siekierkowska Route”, Archives of Institute of Civil Engineering. Ed. Poznan University of Technology, 24/2017, 39-58, ISSN 1897-4007, DOI: 10.21008/j.1897-4007.2017.24.03 (in Polish). 2. R. Ciesielski, M. Maciąg, „Road vibrations and their influence on buildings”, Copyright by Wydawnictwo Komunikacji i Łączności, Warszawa, 1990. („Drgania drogowe i ich wpływ na budynki”) (in Polish). 3. R. W. Day