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Quantitative Study of Quantile Based Direct Prior Elicitation from Expert Opinion. Bayesian Analysis, 2, 137-166. DOI: http://www.dx.doi.org/10.1214/07-BA206 Drbohlav, D. (1996). The Probable Future of European East-West International Migration-Selected Aspects. In Central Europe after the Fall of the Iron Curtain; Geopolitical Perspectives, Spatial Patterns and Trends, F.W. Carter, P. Jordan, and V. Rey (eds). Frankfurt: Lang, 269-296. Garthwaite, P., Kadane, J.B., and O’Hagan, A. (2005). Statistical Methods for Eliciting Proability Distributions. Journal of the American
analysis of the interactions between different cultural, political and economic contexts and the way in which those fundamental social mechanisms took shape. The article is structured in three parts: first, a review of previous studies on the internet in everyday life; second, a discussion of different sampling strategies and qualitative data collection methods and an argument for the particular combination of network and maximum variation sampling with communication diaries and elicitation interviews; and, third, examples from our fieldwork that explain how the
The neural network tuning procedure applied to reliability analyses of anthrop technical systems, based on judgements of experts - experienced operating practicians. Numerical and linguistic elicitation of the judgements, analyses of the network input and output data correlation and of the AHP method processing deviation are presented. Example of data elicitation and correlation analysis of a reliability arrangement of the seagoing ship propulsion system are included to the article.
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1 Introduction Assessing the values of public goods in the fields of environment, culture, transportation, and in other areas often relies on survey-based methods, especially when the passive use of the good substantially contributes to its value. Contingent valuation (CV) Here, we use the term “contingent valuation” in line with the nomenclature for stated preference research as proposed by Carson and Louviere (2011) . Specifically, in our usage, “contingent valuation” is independent of any elicitation method and, thus, it encompasses, among others, single
Trichosporium vesiculosum Butl. causing Blister Bark Disease in Casuarina equisetifolia Forst. Plant Pathology Journal 10: 85-88. KESSLER, A. and I. T. BALDWIN (2002): Plant responses to insect herbivory: the emerging molecular analysis. Annu Rev Plant Biol 53: 299-328. KLARZYNSKI, O., B. PLESSE, J. M. JOUBERT, J. C. YVIN, M. KOPP, B. KLOAREG and B. FRITIG (2000): Linear b-1, 3-glucans are elicitors of defense responses in tobacco. Plant Physiol 124: 1027-1037. KORE-EDA, S., M. A. CUSHMAN, I. AKSELROD, D. BUFFORD, M. FREDRICKSON, E. CLARK and J. C. CUSHMAN (2004): Transcript
References J. Madan, D. Kaushik, S. Sardana, and D. N. Mishra, Effect of ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol on humoral immune response elicited by bovine albumin encapsulated in niosomes, Acta Pharm. Sin. 42 (2007) 905-910. M. L. Villa, G. Rappocciolo and P. Piazza, The interference of antibiotics with antigen specific antibody response in man, Int. J. Immunopharmacol. 8 (1986) 805-809; DOI: 10.1016/0192-0561(86)90018-4. M. Pappaioanou, D. B. Fishbein, D. W. Dreesen, I. K. Schwartz, G. H. Campbell, J. W. Sumner, L. C. Patchen and W. J. Brown, Antibody response
Background: As part of their innate immune response to changes in the central nervous system environment, normally quiescent microglia become activated and increase expression of pattern recognition receptors, scavenger receptors, and production of inflammatory cytokines, proteinases, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and free radicals. These molecules have been implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of several neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer disease (AD).
Objective: We compared patterns of microglial innate immune responses elicited by nonfibrillar amyloid β peptide (nfAβ1-42) to those elicited by lipopolysaccharide (LPS).
Methods: Murine BV-2 microglial cells were exposed to either nfAβ1-42 or LPS for 12 h. Then, total RNA from each condition was isolated and expression levels of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4, scavenger receptor class A (SRMARCO) and class B (SR-BI), CD36, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 were determined by reverse transcription-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The amount of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) in the cell-free supernatant at 24 h were determined using 10-acetyl-3,7-dihydroxyphenoxazine (Amplex Red) and Griess reagent, respectively.
Results: nfAβ1-42 and LPS significantly increased expression of TLR-4, SR-MARCO, CD36, and MMP-9 and production of H2O2 and NO in BV-2 microglial cells compared with that of unstimulated cells. However, expression of SR-BI was significantly induced only when the cells were exposed to nfAβ1-42.
Conclusion: These findings indicate that pattern of microglial innate immune responses elicited by nfAβ1-42 overlap with that elicited by LPS and suggest a specific role of microglial SR-BI expression in AD pathogenesis.