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References Ryant P.: NPK fertilizer with elemental sulphur in mustard nutrition. In: In Vašák J. (ed.) Řepka, mák, hořčice 2006 . Praha: Česká zemědělská univerzita v Praze, 2006 , s. 186 - 191. Finck A.: Fertilizers and Fertilization. Verlag Chemie, Weinheim - Deerfield Beach, Florida - Basel, 1982 , 438 s. Bayoumi N. A., El-Bagouri I. H., Negm M. A., El-Eweddy E. A.: Effect of sulphur application to calcareous soils on soil sulphur forms, on nutrient uptake and on yield of alfalfa. Desert Institute Bulletin , 1999 , 47(1): 31 - 45. Besharati H., Rastin N

-217. Vega, F., Alonso-Fariñas, B., Baena-Moreno, F.M., Rodriguez, J.A., Navarette, B. (2018). New trends in coal conversion. Combustion, gasification, emissions, and cokin g. Woodhead Publishing, ISBN 9780081022016. Yang, Z.H., Stöven, K., Haneklaus, S., Singh, B.R., Schnug, E. (2010). Elemental sulfur oxidation by Thiobacillus spp. and aerobic heeterotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Pesdosphere , 20 (1), 71-79. Zhu, Z., Zhang, F., Wang, Ch., Ran, W., Shen, Q. (2013). Treating fermentative residues as liquid fertilizer and its efficacy on the tomato growth

. Agric., Assiut Univ., Egypt. Abdou S.A., 2006 - Effect of applied elemental sulfur and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria ( Paracoccus versutus ) into calcareous sandy soils on the availability of native and applied phosphorus and some micronutrients. The 18th World Congress of Soil Science, July 9-15, 2006, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Ali A., Arshadullah M., Hyder S.I., Mahmood M.A., 2012 - Effect of different levels of sulfur on the productivity of wheat in a saline sodic soil. Soil and Environment, 31(1): 91-95. Ali R., Khan M.J., Khattak R.A., 2008 - Response of

Abstract

Chickpea is one of the most important legume crops in the Mediterranean semiarid regions. Soils of these regions generally have free CaCO3, high pH and low organic matter, which reduce the availability of micronutrients and cause their deficiencies. In order to study the effects of integrated application of different level of elemental sulfur (0, 15, 30 kg·ha−1) and nano-chelated micronutrients (Zn, Fe, Mn) on growth and agro-morphological traits of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), a field experiment was conducted in the semiarid regions of the northwestern part of Iran. Evaluation of morphological traits showed that application of high level of sulfur significantly improved plant height, the number of primary branches and canopy width compared to the control. The longest growth period was recorded for plants grown by application of high level of sulfur and nano-chelated Zn fertilizer. The obtained data revealed that application of nano-chelated Zn fertilizer resulted in a significant increase in seed number per plant and seed weight compared to other nano-micronutrient fertilizers. Overall, the best growth performance and the highest seed yield were obtained from the integrated application of Zn and high level of sulfur. The findings showed that soil micronutrient deficiencies are partly due to high alkalinity of the soil, and application of sulfur beyond 15 kg·ha−1 can be an effective method to increase the efficacy of nanofertilizers. Integrated application of micronutrient and sulfur should be considered as an efficient agronomic management option for chickpea production systems in semiarid region.

The reaction of β-amino-α,γ-dicyanocrotononitrile with acetophenone: Synthesis of pyridine, pyridazine and thiophene derivatives with antimicrobial activities

Condensation of β-amino-α,γ-dicyanocrotononitrile (1) with acetophenone gave 2-amino-4-phenylpenta-1,3-diene-1,1,3-tricarbonitrile (2). The latter product was used in a series of heterocyclization reactions with different reagents such as diazonium salts, hydrazines, hydroxylamines and elemental sulfur to give pyridazine, pyrazole, isoxazole and thiophene derivatives, respectively. On the other hand, it gave pyridine derivatives with aromatic aldehydes folowed by reaction with cyanomethylene reagents. The MIC values for the newly synthesized product were measured against E. coli, B. cereus, B. subtilis and C. albicans.

The reaction of cyclopentanone with cyanoacetylhydrazine gave 2-cyano-2-cyclopentylideneacetohydrazide (1). Treatment of compound 1 with elemental sulphur in the presence of triethylamine afforded 2-amino-5,6-dihydro- -4H-cyclopenta[b]thiophene-3-carbohydrazide (2), which in-turn formed the corresponding intermediate diazonium salt. The latter was coupled with either ethyl cyanoacetate or ethyl acetoacetate to form 2-cyano-2-(3-(hydrazinecarbonyl)- 5,6-dihydro-4H-cyclopenta[b]thiophen-2-yl)hydrazono) acetate (3) and ethyl 2-(2-(3-(hydrazinecarbonyl)-5,6-dihydro- 4H-cyclopenta[b]thiophen-2-yl)hydrazono)-3-oxobutanoate (4), respectively. On the other hand, the reaction of compound 1 with either benzaldehyde or acetophenone afforded N’-benzylidene-2-cyano-2-cyclopentylideneacetohydrazide (7) and 2-cyano-2-(2-cyclopentylidene)phenylacetohydrazide (10), respectively. Moreover, compound 1 was used to synthesize 2-cyano-2-cyclopentylidene- N'-(arylthiazol-2(3H)-ylidene)acetohydrazides (6a,b), 2-(2-benzylidenecyclopentylidene)-2-cyanoacetohydrazide (8), 2-amino-N'-benzylidene-5,6-dihydro-4H- -cyclopenta[b]thiophene-3-carbohydrazide (9), 2-cyano- -2-(2-(2-phenylhydrazono)cyclopentylidene)acetohydrazide (11), N'-(1-chloropropan-2-ylidene)-2-cyano-2-cyclopentylideneacetohydrazide (12), and 2-cyclopentylidene-3- -(3,5-disubstituted-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-3-oxopropanenitriles (13a,b) through its reaction with the respective reagents. Antitumor evaluation of the newly synthesized compounds against the three human tumor cells lines, namely, breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), non-small cell lung cancer (NCI-H460) and CNS cancer (SF-268) showed that some of the described compounds exhibited higher inhibitory effects towards the three tumor cell lines than the reference compound doxorubicin.

Abstract

2-Cyano-N-(thiazol-2-yl) acetamide (2a) and 2-cyano-N-(oxazol- 2-yl) acetamide (2b) were obtained via the reaction of ethyl cyanoacetate with either 2-aminothiazole (1a) or 2-aminooxazole (1b). The formed products were directed toward the reaction with cyclopentanone and elemental sulfur in the presence of triethylamine to give cyclopenta[b]thiophene derivatives (3a,b). The latter products were reacted with either ethyl cyanoacetate or malononitrile to form compounds 4a,b and 5a,b, respectively. Compounds 4a,b were aimed at synthesizing some heterocyclic compounds; thus internal cyclization reactions were introduced to form compounds 6a,b. Also, compounds 4a,b reacted with salicylaldehyde, hydrazine derivatives and either urea or thiourea to produce coumarin derivatives (7a,b), pyrazole derivatives (8a-d) and pyrimidine derivatives (9a-d), respectively. Reaction of either benzaldehyde or benzene diazonium chloride (11) with compounds 4a,b afforded compounds 10a,b and 12a,b, respectively. On the other hand, compounds 5a,b underwent internal cyclization to form pyrimidine derivatives 13a,b. Also, when compounds 5a,b reacted with either ethyl cyanoacetate or malononitrile, they gave pyridine derivatives (15a-d) through the formation of intermediates (14a-d). Finally, formation of fused pyrimidine derivatives (17a,b) was achieved through the reaction of compounds 5a,b and salicylaldehyde applying two different pathways. The first pathway used a catalytic amount of piperidine to form compounds 16a,b; the latter products underwent cyclization to give compounds 17a,b. The second pathway, using a catalytic amount of sodium ethoxide solution directly in one step, afforded compounds 17a,b. Structures of the newly synthesized compounds were established using IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectrometry and their antitumor activity was investigated. Some of these compounds showed promising inhibitory effects on three different cell lines. However, fused pyrimidine acetonitrile derivatives 6a and 6b exerted the highest inhibitory effect, comparable to that of doxorubicin.

meet with the requirements of plants growing at the same time as conversion of the PhS fertilizer in the soil is taking place. PRODUCTION PROCESS OF PhS The production of the PhS fertilizer involves the following processes: — grinding of rock phosphate to minus 100 mesh — crushing and grinding of elemental sulphur — heating ground rock phosphate (GRP) — mixing of GRP with melting elemental sulphur — cooling of the PhS — inoculation of PhS production with bioactive agent. The product — PhS fertilizer, is a coarse grained powder having 80% grains within the

using ferrous ions and elemental sulfur as subrate. Chemosphere, 70, 2008, 974-981.

-78. KOŚLA T., SKIBNIEWSKA E.M., SKIBNIEWSKI M. 2011. The state of bioelements in the hair of free-ranging European bisons from Białowieża primeval forest. Polish J. Vet. Sci 14: 81-86. KOŚLA T., SKIBNIEWSKA E.M., URBAŃSKA-SŁOMKA G., SKIBNIEWSKI M. 2007. Correlation between sulphur content in hair and the results in blood of haematological and biochemical examinations in cats free living in Warsaw. Environmental Protection and Natural Resources 31: 438-441. LAMAND M. 1989. Influence of molybdenum and sulfur on copper metabolism in sheep: comparison of elemental sulfur