Krzysztof Skiba, Jacek Czarnigowski and Tomasz Zyska
A majority of ultralight aircraft is powered by the Rotax 912 ULS, which is a four-cylinder carburettor piston SI boxer engine. However, its power-to-power advanced aircraft is insufficient. This article discusses the examination of the Rotax 912 fitted with a modified power system and mechanical charging to increase the power of a base unit by 36%. This engine was developed as a collaborated project of the Lublin University of Technology and the AVIATION ARTUR TRENDAK & SON GmbH, a manufacturer of autogyros. Sources of energy in the Rotax 912 are generated with a generator integrated with an ignition system of a maximum power of 250 W at 5800 rpm and 13.5 V . The technology of fuel injection and charging required us to apply control systems and to measure engine-operating parameters, which resulted in higher electric energy demand. Additionally, a mechanical pump was replaced with a more efficient electric pump, which also changed electric energy balance. The examination was conducted on the test stand of the Department of Thermodynamics, Fluid Mechanics and Aviation Propulsion Systems of the Lublin University of Technology. The measurement system consisted of the Tektronix TCP305 current probes and TCP A300 converters. Signals were recorded with data acquisition cards and the National Instruments Ni CompaktDAQ module. Power consumption was measured for the selected speed ranging from 2000 to 5800 rpm. The current probes were appropriately installed on power cords. The probes recorded respectively the power consumed by the fuel pump, the energy demand of the lambda sensor, and the electricity taken by the ECU. The data obtained was converted with the author’s script in LabVIEW. Based on the results, the highest electricity demand shows the fuel pump. Furthermore, increasing engine speed and load results in higher pressure in the fuel system and consequently in the higher power demand of the pump. The pump consumes up to 89% of all energy consumed by the system. In the control system, the highest demand shows lambda sensor BOSCH LSU4.2 . With the increase in speed, the exhaust gas temperature increases, which leads to less power consumed by the heater of the sensor head. The demand of the other measurement systems and actuators is less than 10.6% of total consumption. The investigation shows that the total power demand of this new system ranges from 63 to 73 W, which is from 24 to 70% of the total power output from a generator mounted on the engine.
Road transport is showing growth in the period of globalization. Its task is to transport cargo as well as people to the required location within the shortest possible time and at the lowest price. Thus, road transport plays a crucial role in enabling the globalization to be developed and improved. However, the internal combustion engine hat prevail among the vehicles of freight and passenger transport are the producers of gaseous emissions from the exhaust gases. Many developed countries of the world has committed themselves, inter alia also trough the Paris Agreement, to reduce global warming, and thus to reduce the production of harmful gaseous emissions. The result is the endeavour to replace the internal combustion engine vehicles that burn carbon fuels with the vehicles powered by electric motors consuming electric energy. The reason of such trying claims that road transport using the internal combustion engine vehicles is environmentally aggressive, and the problem would not be solved by implementation of the vehicles with electric motors. Such claim is based on the fact that an electric car does not produce any of primary emissions. From an overall perspective, it is also necessary to take into account secondary emissions that are produced during the electric energy production by which is the vehicle with electric motor powered. The purpose of this article is to assume the possibility of reducing global pollution by replacing the internal combustion engine vehicles with the vehicles powered by electric motors in dependence with producing the emissions during the production of electric energy.
In the paper, the changes in electric energy consumption are analyzed as associated with structural changes in the Latvian economy of postsocialistic period. To the analysis, a particular approach is applied, which consists in comparison of the basic and specific electricity consumption indices in West-, Central-, and East-European states for the time span of 1990-2010, with differences and tendencies of changes revealed. Tendencies of the type are determined for the electric energy consumption in Latvia, and recommendations are given for the use of such indices in the relevant forecasts.
Peter Morvai, Miroslav Žitňák and Stanislav Paulovič
With rationalization of electricity consumption, it is possible to obtain savings of electric energy in households, as well as financing and capital input for the electricity production. Rational use of appliances in the best operating modes can reduce the final consumption of electricity, representing a positive impact on improving the environment quality. The main objective of this paper was to measure the electricity consumption of appliances in various operating modes. The measured values from two energy suppliers were recorded and processed in tables and figures, from which we created a table of the financial costs necessary for operation of appliances in different modes. For the calculation of annual electricity consumption and electricity prices, an application allowing selection of individual products from suppliers with current electricity prices was designed. According to the tables of electricity prices, various modes of appliance operation allow the selection of the most preferred mode for appliance operation based on the lowest price, rational consumption and energy costs. The aim of the paper is to demonstrate the consumption and costs of operating appliances in certain operating modes, standby modes and their efficient use or functionally similar appliances for reduction of electricity consumption in households.
The development of information and communication technologies (ICTs) has significant economic and social impacts at both the global and regional level. Some of these implications have been perceived as positive and unexpected. While both the positive and negative social and economic impacts have been highlighted in the literature, opinions on these impacts remain ambiguous. Those aspects considered to be advantageous include faster communication, ease of use, development in the range of services and revenues, and an increase in individuals’ free time allowance. ICT penetrates all branches of the economy as a set of general purpose technologies. New information and communication technologies ease everyday life, serve as tools to help people in extreme situations, e.g. accidents, illnesses or natural disasters, and are also the pillars of contemporary entertainment media. The usefulness of ICT has been stressed and loudly disseminated to a large extent by the media. On the other hand, these new technologies sensitize society in quite new ways to the well-known natural hazards that people have encountered in the past.
I. Grinevich, Vl. Nikishin, N. Mozga and M. Laitans
The paper deals with the possibilities of reducing the consumption of electrical energy of the impact screwdriver during the assembly of fixed threaded joints. The recommendations related to a decrease in electrical energy consumption would allow reducing product costs but so far there have been no such recommendations from the producers of the tool as to the effective operating regimes of the impact screwdrivers in relation to electrical energy consumption and necessary tightening moment of the nut. The aim of the study is to find out the economical operating mode of the electrical impact screwdriver when assembling fixed threaded joints. By varying the set speed of the rotor head and working time of the impact mechanism, there is an opportunity to determine electrical energy consumption of the tool for the given tightening moment. The results of the experiment show that at the same tightening moment obtained the electrical energy consumption of the impact screwdriver is less at a higher starting set speed of the rotor head but shorter operating time of the impact mechanism than at a lower speed of the rotor head and longer operating time of the impact mechanism.
Tomáš Skrúcaný, Saša Milojević, Štefánia Semanová, Tomáš Čechovič, Tomasz Figlus and František Synák
The article deals with the problem of electric power production in terms of environmental impact, in particular the energy efficiency of its production to utilize primary sources. The efficiency of its production directly depends on the composition of primary sources and technologies used. Difference in efficiency by converting various forms of energy into electrical power and their ratio in the use directly affect the resulting efficiency, production of emissions and thus the environmental impact. Electric traction, its production, is burdened less efficient than other types of tractions used in transport, but at the final reconciliation of their consumption in vehicles, this difference decreases or delays because the vehicles themselves work with different conversion efficiency of its traction on mechanical work, vehicle driving.
Nicolae Vasile, Bogdan Tene, Andrei Nedelschi, Nicolae Fidel and Ionuţ Craiu
The paper deals with the concept of autonomy of electrical systems, which is becoming more and more present, in the context in which the electric-non-electric relation existing on the market is constantly changing in favor of electricity. The factors influencing this trend come from imposing the principles of Sustainable Development, the exhaustiveness of fossil forms of energy, technological advances in the electrical and electronic components industry and their connection with computers. Evolution of Smart Grid, Smart Grid, Smart City, Smart Building, Smart Transport, etc. provides a global electronic system that will power and control most of the economic activity.
=https://www.sto.nato.int/publications/STO%20Technical%20Reports/STO-TR-SET-173-Part-II [access 01.03.2016].
 Grzeczka G., Polak A., Rak R., Integration of PEM Fuel Cells and Lithium Ion Secondary Battery Into a Single Hybrid ElectricEnergy Source, Part I, Control System, ‘Propulsion Systems, Mechatronics and Communication’, 2016, Vol. 817, pp. 289-295, [online], https://www.scientific.net/AMM.817.28 [access 09.03.2016].
 Grzeczka G., Swoboda P., Analysis of the possibility of use lithium - ion as a starting battery on the ship engine room, ‘Solid State Phenomena
Adam Polak, Grzegorz Grzeczka, Paweł Swoboda and Piotr Bakiera
The paper presents issues related to the operational safety of lithium-based batteries on vessels. In the first part of the paper the regulations of the Polish Register of Shipping (PRS), regarding the requirements for the batteries on a vessel are analysed. The next section presents the risks related to the use of lithium-based electric energy storage technology. The last part discusses the principles to be adopted during operation of lithium batteries to minimize the risk of threats.