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mortality among eledrly in Europe. J Aging Health 2008; 20: 159-82. Appolo project. A guide for implementers of interventions to prevent falls in community-dwelling older people. Working Package Four: Development and assessment of strategic materials for implementation of recommendations for preventing falls among elderly people in the EU, 2008. Todd C, Skelton D. What are the main risk factors for falls among older people and what are the most effective interventions to prevent these falls? Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe (Health Evidence Network report) 2004

Pogorzelska-Stronczak B., Bubiłek-Bogacz A., Szporek B.: Selected stomatological problems in elderly. Wiad. Lek., 54, 88, 2001. 15. Pregiel B. et al..: Condition of oral mucous membrane of members of audience attending University for Third Age in Wroclaw. Mag. Stomat., 11, 72, 2006. 16. Rabiei M. et al.: Prevalence of oral and dental disorders in institutionalised elderly people in Rasht, Iran. Gerodontology, 27, 174, 2010. 17. Simons D. et al.: Relationship between oral hygiene practices and oral status in dentate elderly people living in residential homes. Comm. Dent

edition, Oxford University Press, New York 1996. [5] Kotowska I.E., Jóźwiak J., Nowa demografia Europy , Roczniki Kolegium Analiz Ekonomicznych, Zeszyt 28/2012. [6] Adamczewski G., Nicał A., Wielkowymiarowe prefabrykowane elementy z betonu , Inżynier budownictwa 3/2012, 46–53. [7] Nicał A., Selected technical solutions in construction for elderly people in Poland , Archives of Civil Engineering 2016, 87–96. [8] Lenkiewicz W., Orczykowski A., Węglarz M., Nezwal J., Hron A., Janc L., Klemm H., Kumm H., Uprzemysłowione budownictwo mieszkaniowe w Polsce, Czechosłowacji

Introduction Especially when holding qualitative interviews on media appropriation and communicative networking with elderly people, one repeatedly comes across comments like ‘in my generation…’ or ‘in our generation…’. This is followed by statements concerning the media contents said to be preferred by certain age groups or one’s attitude with regard to specific media. Analysing such interviews in a comparative perspective, it becomes apparent that although the individual references made within an age group may well be identical, the concretely appropriated

exercise capacity in elderly people. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness , 45(2), 217-221. Gauchard, G. C., Jeandel, C. & Perrin P. P. (2001). Physical and sporting activities improve vestibular afferent usage and balance in elderly human subjects. Gerontology , 47, 263-2270. Ivan, L. (2004). Öregedés: örök ifjúság? /Aging: forever young/. Mindentudás Egyeteme http://mindentudas.hu/eloadasok/szemeszter/itemlist/extrafield.html?extrafield=2&extrafieldval ue=4&theme=eloadasok&page_title=IV.+szemeszter http

Abstract

Drawing on Simone de Beauvoir’s call for a change perspective on old age, as perceive, this article reviews the literature for factors and aspects that influence the quality of life of the elderly. Simone de Beauvoir saw old age as the individual’s unending struggle with the indifference that elderly people encounter, and with pain and illnesses. The improvement in the situation of the elderly cannot be accomplished by merely raising pensions and providing fair housing; rather it is necessary to have a more profound change – a change of life (de Beauvior, 1996). Hence, improving the quality life of elderly people necessitates a more holistic approach, that considers physical functioning, mental, social, environmental and cognitive condition in addition to traditional aspects involving health and economic aspects.

Abstract

Introduction. We tested how female University of the Third Age (U3A) attendees evaluated their health, physical fitness, and satisfaction with health. We also examined various factors potentially underlying those self-assessments, that is objective indicators of health and physical fitness, their potential determinants (age and financial situation), and potential modifiers of self-assessment (mood, perceptive ability, and education).

Material and methods. A total of 116 female participants attending U3A classes in Warsaw aged 50-88 years evaluated their health and fitness on a 100-level visual scale and their satisfaction with their health on a five-level Likert scale. Each participant completed the UWIST mood adjective checklist (UMACL) by Matthews, Chamberlain, and Jones and Yesavage’s geriatric depression scale, underwent the Fullerton fitness test, a hand grip strength test, Romberg’s test, and Ciechanowicz and Stanczyk’s attention and perception test, as well as filling out a specially designed questionnaire.

Results. Self-assessments of health were found to correlate with aggravated symptoms of depression and certain components of physical fitness, but not with age or financial situation. Self-assessments of physical fitness, in turn, were strongly correlated with objective indicators of physical health and depression and less strongly with dexterity test results. General satisfaction levels, in turn, were found to be associated with long-term conditions, aggravated symptoms of depression, and financial situation.

Conclusions. Overall, our results confirm that self-assessments are a moderately accurate indicator of the general health and physical fitness of elderly people: they correlated to a certain degree with more objective indicators of health/fitness but were influenced by modifying factors, particularly cognitive ones.

Abstract

The process of ageing is an inevitable life phenomenon in both the individual and social aspects. With the growing life expectancy of humans, the way of living in the old age becomes a challenge in the context of respect for the dignity of the elderly. In this article, I present selected theoretical issues concerning the sense of dignity, everyday life and helplessness of elderly people with disabilities, which is unfortunately often associated with it. I also show the complexity of contemporary problems and expectations and the challenges faced by older people with disabilities.

The Socio-Demographic Context of Rural Poverty

A drop in standard of living does not have an equal influence on the way of life in different environments. So, for example, in more urban environments the possibility of realising greater purchasing power gets harder, and in others (economically underdeveloped) the minimal funds for food, clothing, footwear, children's education, health care etc. decrease. Poor households in rural environments have existed throughout the years. They exist today, but with different characteristics and dimensions than in the past. Chronically poor, the most vulnerable categories in the village are the households of elderly people. They represent a serious economic and social problem. Regarding the economic plan, the unexploited available capacities (cultivable soil), and on the social plan they either earn no income or a modest income.

A significant number of agricultural households in the village, run the risk of becoming poorer. The participation of cash income from property is decreasing, and the participation of income from social transfers and the value of natural expenditure is increasing. The main characteristics of these households are: low education level of the members, none of them are employed, bad quality of the owned land, the elderly. There is a significant increase and profound poverty in the households of mountain village districts. Beside low incomes, the households do not have any possibility of providing enough income for a decent living, there is a greater influence of the inaccessibility of basic living conditions (road, transport connections, health care, education, postal services etc.).

Identification of the perceptive and motor skills in elderly people… 163 IDENTIFICATION OF THE PERCEPTIVE AND MOTOR SKILLS IN ELDERLY PEOPLE WHEN DESIGNING A HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTION Kamil Wróbel Poznan University of Technology, Faculty of Management Engineering, Strzelecka 11, 60-000 Poznan, Poland, kamil.wrobel@put.poznan.pl Abstract: Concerns of human-computer interaction for users with specific requirements are presented in this papers. Problems of elderly people using computer devices are here described. Application of the