Krzysztof Górski, Stanisław Kondracki and Anna Wysokińska
and its functional significance in relation with the motility parameters in fresh semen. Theriogenology 2009, 71, 254–263.
5. Górski K., Kondracki S., Wysokińska A., Nazaruk A.: The importance of ejaculate volume for the physical parameters of ejaculates and sperm morphology of Hypor boars. Kafkas Univ Vet Fak Derg 2016, 22, 493–501.
6. Helfenstein F., Podevin M., Richner H.: Sperm morphology, swimming velocity, and longevity in the house sparrow Passer domesticus . Behav Ecol Sociobiol 2010, 64, 557–565.
7. Hirai M., Boersma A., Hoeflich A., Wolf
Krzysztof Górski, Stanisław Kondracki, Anna Wysokińska and Maria Iwanina
capacity of sperm ( 6 ). Some studies have indicated an association between the dimensions and shape of spermatozoa and male fertility ( 30 ), and one cited the size of the sperm head as a factor of male conceptive fitness ( 23 ). The dimensions and shape of the sperm cells have also been shown to be affected by the ejaculate traits ( 9 ) and environmental factors ( 10 ).
Hypor boars, a hybrid line of pigs, are commonly used in the production of hybrid fatteners. While boar sperm quality is routinely assessed by measuring the concentration and morphology of spermatozoa
Krzysztof Górski, Stanisław Kondracki, Karolina Strachocka and Anna Wysokińska
., Nazaruk A. (2016). The importance of ejaculate volume for the physical parameters of ejaculates and sperm morphology of Hypor boars. Kafkas Univ. Vet. Fak., 22: 493–501.
Górski K., Kondracki S., Wysokińska A. (2017). Ejaculate traits and sperm morphology depending on ejaculate volume in Duroc boars. J. Vet. Res., 61: 121–125.
Hirai M., Boersma A., Hofflich A., Wolf E., Föll J., Aumüller R., Braun A.J. (2001). Objectively measured sperm motility and sperm head morphometry in boars ( Sus scrofa ): relation to fertility and seminal plasma growth factors. J
Karolina Stasiak, Stanisław Kondracki and Maria Iwanina
Banaszewska D., Kondracki S. (2012). An assessment of the breeding maturity of insemination boars based on ejaculate quality changes. Folia Biol., 60: 151-162.
Banaszewska D., Kondracki S., Wysokińska A. (2009). Effect of sperm concentration on ejaculate for morphometric traits of spermatozoas of the Pietrain breed boars. J. Cent. Eur. Agric., 10: 383-396.
Bierła J.B., Giżejewski Z. (2007). Differences in spermatozoon: physiology or pathology? Med. Weter., 63: 1408-1411.
Blom E. (1981
Martin Nikolovski, Monika Dovenska, Ksenija Ilievska, Nikola Adamov, Branko Atanasov, Miroslav Radeski, Daniela Kirovski, Vladimir Petkov and Toni Dovenski
Reduced glutathione (GSH) and homologous ram seminal plasma (HSP), used as additives in cryopreserving (CP) media prior to freezing, showed conflicting results in retaining structural integrity and progressive motility in post-thawed ram spermatozoa. The aims of this research were: (1) to assess the effect of GSH and/or HSP supplementation via soybean-lecithin CP extender on cryopreserved ram spermatozoa viability, morphology and motility pattern; and (2) to assess the effect of incubation in the context of the previous aim. Quantitatively and qualitatively, homogenized and pooled ram ejaculates (N=10) were extended with one of the following extenders: control (C) – tris-based, GSH and HSP-free, experimental-1 (E1) – C + GSH 5 mM, experimental-2 (E2) – C + HSP 20 % and experimental-3 (E3) - GSH 5 mM + HSP 20 %. Following thawing, samples were taken at 0- and 3-hours from each group (n=10) and were assessed for spermatozoa viability, morphology, and motility pattern. C-0h samples yielded a spermatozoa population with low viability, altered head morphology and highly deviated motility pattern. E3-3h samples yielded spermatozoa with unaffected viability, head morphology and high progressive motility. In conclusion, E3 extender added to cryopreserved-thawed ram spermatozoa is most efficient in obtaining high viability, unaltered head morphology, and progressive motility.
Banaszewska D., Kondrcki S. (2012). An assessment of the breeding maturity insemination boars based on ejaculate quality changes. Folia Biol.-Krakow, 60: 151–162.
Blom E. (1981). The morphological estimation of the spermatozoa defects of bull II. The proposal of new classification of spermatozoa defects (in Polish). Med. Weter., 37: 239–242.
Chamberlain T.S., Hughes P.E. (1996). The influence of mating frequency and nutrition on the stimulus value of boars. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 43: 151–160.
Ciereszko A., Ottobre J.S., Glogowski J. (2000
Pavel Horký, Jiri Skladanka, Pavel Nevrkla and Petr Slama
P., Cerkal R. (2014). Effect of fungicidal treatment on digestibility of mycotoxins in vitro. Potravinarstvo, 8: 328-332.
Horký P., Jancikova P., Sochor J., Hynek D., Chavis G.J., Ruttkay- Nedecky B., Carnei N., Zitka O., Zeman L., Adam V., Kizek R. (2012). Effect of organic and inorganic form of selenium on antioxidant status of breeding boars ejaculate revealed by electrochemistry. Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 7: 9643-9657.
Horký P., Tmejova K., Kensova R., Cernei N., Kudr J., Ruttkay- Nedecky B., Sa - pakova E., Adam V., Kizek R
The effectiveness of two methods of collecting semen from honeybee Apis mellifera drones was compared, and the reasons for problems with ejaculating semen were analysed. Among 275 drones, 100 were stimulated to release semen using a manual method, 100 with the use of chloroform, and from 75 drones the reproductive organs were dissected for analysis and evaluation. It was found that the principal causes of problems that drones had with ejaculating their semen were anatomical changes or a delay in the development of the mucus glands. It was also found that the method employing chloroform was less efficient in the first phase of eversion of the endophallus, compared with the manual method. The method with the use of chloroform allows the determination of the proportion of drones, which do not evert the endophallus because of poor or delayed development of mucus glands, as well as the proportion of drones which evert the organ, but do not ejaculate semen because of the absence of semen in the seminal vesicles.
Łukasz Zielonka, Włodzimierz Przewoski, Magdalena Gajęcka, Ewa Jakimiuk and Maciej Gajęcki
A growing interest in enzymatic growth promoters prompted the authors of the study to investigate the effects of a stimulating enzymatic complex on ejaculate characteristics of boars. The enzymatic complex comprising five proteases (proteinases - endopeptidases) and two peptidases (exopeptidases) was obtained by fermentation from Streptomyces fradiae. This complex was added to boar diets for 3 months at the initial doses of 90 (group E1) and 120 (group E2) g/ton of feed in the first week, followed by 40 and 60 g/ton, respectively, in the following weeks. Evaluation was based on the assessment of key ejaculate characteristics (volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count, primary and secondary sperm defects). The enzymatic complex improved the microscopic and macroscopic characteristics of boar ejaculate by increasing sperm concentrations and total sperm counts, and decreasing the volume of the analysed ejaculates without significant changes in the spermiograms of primary and secondary defects.
Miroslava Mráčková, Marta Zavadilová and Markéta Sedlinská
, E.L. (1991). Effect of seminal plasma dilution or removal on spermatozoa motion characteristics of cooled semen. Theriogenology 35, 1059-1067. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0093-691X(91)90354-G
6. Braun, J., Sakai, M., Hochi, S., Oguri, N. (1994). Preservation of ejaculated and epididymal stallion spermatozoa by cooling and freezing. Theriogenology 41, 809-818. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0093-691X(94)90497-7
7. Alghamdi, A.S., Troedsson, M.H., Xue, J.L., Crabo, B.G. (2002). Effect of seminal plasma concentration and various extenders on