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Any organization is in a permanent search for reputable leaders. Leaders adopt a behaviour reflected by their professional training and ego-esteem. Ego-perception reflects how a person is seen as a genre (how is?), as an identity (who is?), as an image of his/her ego (what is?), as self-opinion (what has?) and as an object (what affects?). The perception of those around them revolves around the things that are known to themselves and to the others (such as the physical reflection), the things the person knows about but the others do not know (personalities not shown), the things others know about him/her own person, but about which he/she does not know (personality traits that are perceived differently) and things that neither the person nor the others know (the ones in the unconscious). To be effective, the leader needs to know himself/herself and the environment in which he/she is acting, and to constantly pursue the relationship between ego-perception and perception of others about him/her. The desired report is the one in which the personal perception is the same as that of the others. Any significant variation leads to under or overestimation and, implicitly, to negative effects on the leadership process.

Abstract Thought, 203-222. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Gentner, Dedre, Mutsumi Imai and Lera Boroditsky. 2002. As Time Goes By: Evidence for Two Systems in Processing Space → Time Metaphors. Language and Cognitive Processes 17. 537-565 Grady, Joseph E. 1997a. THEORIES ARE BUILDINGS revisited. Cognitive Linguistics 8. 267-290. Grady, Joseph E. 1997b. Foundations of Meaning: Primary Metaphors and Primary Scenes. Dept. of Linguistics, U.C. Berkeley: PhD Dissertation. Huang, Hsin-mei May and Shelley Ching-yu Hsieh. 2007. Time-moving Metaphors and Ego-Moving Metaphors: Which is

important factors that shape conditions and prerequisites for success ( Baric and Bucik, 2009 ). Since doping in sport is used to improve performance and consequently to achieve success, it is reasonable to expect that certain relationships between motivation and doping behavior exist. However, only few studies actually reported associations between motivational factors and doping behavior in athletes (Allen et al., 2015; Sas-Nowosielski and Swiatkowska, 2008 ; Zucchetti et al., 2015 ). When studying Polish athletes, the authors reported ego orientation as being


A defined and formed identity is the foundation of human mental functioning. The sense of one’s own existence as an individual, together with the conscious image of oneself, plays a fundamental role in regulating behaviors. The ability to see the limits of one’s own body is a significant milestone in human development, because it allows the development of a global sense of self, and that is the basis for the process of identifying one’s own identity.

The paper presents the contribution of Polish researchers (psychiatrists and psychologists) to understanding the phenomenon of the sense of self, identity, and their disorders with particular emphasis on schizophrenia.

Method: A review of the available literature by Polish authors on the subject was undertaken by searching the following data-bases: Polish Bibliography of Medicine, CEJS, NUKAT and National Library Database, using the keywords: identity, self, personality, schizophrenia, ego, within time frame: 1970–June 2017. The article includes only those works which made the original contribution of Polish authors to research on the issue of self and the sense of identity, with particular emphasis on their disorders in schizophrenia.

Results: The works of three Polish authors: J. Reykowski, J. Kozielecki and Z. Zaborowski deserve particular attention in the context of the definition of self and the sense of identity.

The works of A. Kępiński, in turn, have contributed to understanding the problem of disorders of self in schizophrenia. Kępiński’s psychopathological concept was based on the analysis and description of the pathology of self, the pathology of the boundary self–the world, disorders of time-space order and the hierarchy of values. In these terms, he considered the structure of the psychotic world, especially in schizophrenia and melancholy. In his opinion, schizophrenic psychosis manifests itself primarily in the form of the blurring of the boundary self–the world and the pathology of self.

The paper also presents the contribution of J. Zadęcki, M. Rzewuska, J. Wciórka, S. Steuden, M. Huflejt-Łukasik to understanding the disorders of the sense of self in schizophrenia.

Conclusions: The views of Polish authors presented in the paper are an interesting contribution to world literature on research into disorders of self in schizophrenia.


The purpose of this paper is o analyze the three hypotheses of corporeality in the Blagian lyrical and to demonstrate that they coagulate around the authentic substance of the ego, which tries to suppress or diminish them from the tax, from limits to becoming one with the spirit of this world. By canceling them, they actually become consistent and participate in the modernist lyrical ceremonial.


This paper is intended to be an introduction to the elucidation of the mutual understanding on the basis of the concept interpretation. The author raises the question about how is it possible to understand each other in spite of the fact that the mental world is immediately inaccessible. He argues that the possibility of the mutual understanding is an anthropological constant: the human being is set for understanding as a result of the evolutional mature of his interpretational ability. The major part of the text is an attempt at explanation of the role of interpretation in the process of shaping of the subject. It is argued that the germ of the subjectivity is the instinct for self-preservation which determines the fundamental relation of the human to the world: the world is seen through the lens of egocentrism. Showing that the possibility of the mutual understanding of egocentric subjects is a deceptive paradox helps us comprehend the anthropological foundation of this phenomenon. The final part of the text outlines the problem of the mutual understanding in the real interactional conditions and focuses the attention on three fundamental factors: ego, language, egoism


In “Constructions in analysis” (1937), S. Freud compared the analyst’s work to that of the archaeologist searching among vestiges, with the big difference that the object of our work is alive, and working with it causes fear, pain and suffering. Last year, during a visit to Pompeii and Mount Vesuvius, impressed by the strangeness of the atmosphere, by people carbonised by lava, eternal statues in a shocking atemporality among the archaic objects and traces of the place, I picked up the thread of psychoanalytic reflections on such ruins, vestiges, the layers of “ash” also present in the human psyche and their relevance in the work of the analytic cure. How to communicate the unthinkable, the unsayable, the un-representable, the barely figurable? How to transform traces of your “ancestors’ ancestors’ ancestors”, even as passed down from Superego to Superego, or via inter-transgenerational transmissions? How to transform the formless into form?

From S. Freud to D. W. Winnicott, and W. Bion, from A. Green and J. McDougall, via D. Anzieu and R. Roussillon, the author is proposing to revisit the psychic vestiges as they are expressing during the analytic process.


The literature on creativity has often focused on the analysis of artists and scientists. The ability to generalize these findings to respective professional sub-disciplines is examined. In particular, the present study addresses the generalizability of the personality profile of creative scientists to creative social scientists. Autonomy was found to be the most important personality feature for creativity in social sciences. These results suggest the importance of fostering an autonomous working style.


Narrative identity is recognized as a process and viewed in dynamic terms, as an entity subject to constant changes in the course of one’s life. It is assumed that an increasing need to make changes in one’s history of life emerges in middle adulthood. A generative script is revealed, containing a plan to become part of the lives of future generations. The process of creative integration of one’s life story may gather momentum in late adulthood, when individuals explore their identity in the context of their life’s work. In order to test the above assumptions, narratives of participants aged 65-80 years who were wives/mothers/grandmothers or husbands/fathers/grandfathers during their lives were analyzed. Six main themes characteristic of life stories in late adulthood were identified, along with groups of traits, behaviors and values which participants wished to pass on to subsequent generations. The narratives clearly featured a generative motivation and the need to integrate one’s story.

trying to win. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin , 1981; 7: 79-83 Deci EL, Ryan RM. Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum, 1985. Digelidis N, Papaioannou A. Age group differences in intrinsic motivation, goal orientations and perceptions of athletic competence, physical appearance and motivational climate in Greek physical education. Scand J Med Sci Sports , 1999; 9: 375-80 Duda JL. Relationship between task and ego orientation and the perceived purpose of sport among high school athletes. J Sport Exercise Psy