The rate of employment (or vice versa the rate of unemployment) is an important indicator of economic maturity and quality of life in a particular country. Compared to other countries of the European Union, unemployment in the Slovak Republic is a serious problem. Improving the quality and the efficiency of Slovak educational institutions can be one of the ways how to struggle with this problem. The Slovak economy has been transformed from planned economy to market economy, and, therefore, retraining, re-educations and improvement (in the field of industry and services) have been required. The Institute of Lifelong Learning is very helpful in this field. The article deals with shortcomings of the Institute of Lifelong Learning and it points out the reality leading to drawbackks. It also concerns the following possibilities, which might improve the current situation. In a theoretical analysis of the current state, we define the basic terms and problems in this field.