Dorota Burchart-Korol and Krystyna Czaplicka-Kolarz
Computer Applications in Eco-efficiency Assessment in Logistics The goal of this study is to present computer applications in eco-efficiency assessment in Logistics based on Umberto for Ecoefficiency software. The study defines the major components of eco-efficiency analysis like: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Material Flow Analysis (MFA). According to ISO 14045:2012 eco-efficiency assessment is a quantitative management tool which enables the study of life-cycle environmental impacts of a product system along with its product system value for a stakeholder. Within eco-efficiency assessment, environmental impacts are evaluated using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The eco-efficiency methodology is proposed with using Umberto for Eco-efficiency software. Therefore, this article presents the results of Life Cycle Assessment according to methods used in Umberto software on the case study of valuation of the different logistic possibilities. The results of this study can be used as the first step in performing a full cradle-to-grave eco-efficiency that includes all phases of the logistics system.
Efficiency Assessment of Support Mechanisms for Wood-Fired Cogeneration Development in Estonia
There are various support mechanisms for wood-fired cogeneration plants, which include both support for cogeneration development and stimulation for increasing consumption of renewable energy sources. The efficiency of these mechanisms is analysed in the paper. Overview of cogeneration development in Estonia is given with the focus on wood-fired cogeneration. Legislation acts and amendments, related to cogeneration support schemes, were described.
For evaluating the efficiency of support mechanisms an indicator - fuel cost factor was defined. This indicator includes the costs related to the chosen fuel influence on the final electricity generation costs without any support mechanisms.
The wood fuel cost factors were compared with the fuel cost factors for peat and oil shale. For calculating the fuel cost factors, various data sources were used. The fuel prices data were based on the average cost of fuels in Estonia for the period from 2000 till 2008. The data about operating and maintenance costs, related to the fuel type in the case of comparing wood fuel and oil shale fuel were taken from the CHP Balti and Eesti reports. The data about operating and maintenance costs used for peat and wood fuel comparison were taken from the Tallinn Elektrijaam reports.
As a result, the diagrams were built for comparing wood and its competitive fuels. The decision boundary lines were constructed on the diagram for the situation, when no support was provided for wood fuels and for the situations, when various support mechanisms were provided during the last 12 years.
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Thanassoulis, E., Dyson, R., & Foster, M. (1987). Relative EfficiencyAssessments Using Data Envelopment Analysis: An Application to Data on Rates Departments. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 38(5), 397-411.
*** (2017). U-Multirank. http://www.umultirank.org/#!/home?name=null&trackType=home.
From a developer’s point of view the construction of a wind farm in Poland is an investment project assessed in terms of economic efficiency. This paper discusses the selection of methods to be used for the assessment of such investments: it proposes to consider wind farm construction as an option and price it using models developed for the financial market. The purpose of the paper is to present a practical application of the option pricing method to the assessment of wind farm construction efficiency, in particular to compare the option and discount methods. Calculations are based with the example of an actual wind farm completed by one of the authors. The values of the project are different depending on the chosen method of estimation. The pricing carried out using the options method will lend legitimacy to the DCF result or suggest the verification of its correctness and review of the assumptions made. In both cases the application of the options method will have an advantageous impact on the investment decision.
Efficiency improvement is important for increasing the competitiveness of any sector and the same is essential for the forestry sector. A non-parametric approach – Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) was used for the assessment of forestry efficiency. The paper presents the results of the efficiency evaluation of forestry in European countries using DEA. One basic and two modified models (labour and wood sale) were proposed, based on available input and output data from Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounts for Forests and specific conditions of forestry also. The sample size was 22 countries and the data for 2005–2008 was processed. Obtained results show average efficiency in the range of 69 – 90% (depending on the model). Based on the results of the analysis following can be concluded: Slovak forestry achieved under average efficiency in comparison to other European countries, there were great differences in efficiency among individual countries; state of economy (advanced countries and countries with economy in transition) and region did not influence the efficiency statistically significant.
Purpose: The purpose of this article is to present the concept of social value added (SVA) as a tool for measuring the effectiveness of the activity of not-for-profit cultural institutions.
Methodology: A direct application of the measure of economic value added (EVA) in the case of evaluation of non-profit activity of cultural institutions would be impossible because of the specificity of such organizations, which – as distinct from standard enterprises – are not oriented on generating financial gains. The article covers several successive modifications of EVA, which lead eventually to the measure of social value added (SVA). This parameter represents the difference between the social impact of an evaluated institution and the social cost of capital involved in the conducted activity. A positive SVA means that the activity carried out by the institution subject to evaluation is socially viable. The method of SVA calculation presented in the article has been supported by a numerical example.
Findings: The modifications presented in this article make it possible to adapt economic value added (EVA) to the needs and specificity of not-for-profit public cultural institutions. Applying a modified EVA parameter, that is SVA, in cultural institutions may facilitate the process of management and the measurement of effective utilization of resources of these entities.
Originality/value: Published sources seldom tend to cover the tools improving management process or making it possible to measure the effects achieved by public cultural institutions. The solution discussed in this paper is a contribution to the body of reference literature in the said scope.
Many countries in the Baltic Sea basin have initiated enhancement programs for Baltic migratory sea trout, Salmo trutta L., to compensate for losses stemming from anthropogenic pressure that has resulted in the declining population abundance of this species. Regular stock enhancement has been conducted in Poland since the 1960s. Currently, over one million sea trout smolts are released into Polish rivers annually. In most Baltic countries, including Poland, stock enhancement depends on hatcheries producing material using spawners caught in native rivers. However, increasing difficulty obtaining spawners in recent years in Poland has meant that stock enhancement performed in the Vistula has been done largely with material obtained from broodstocks. Simultaneously, there is a lack of information regarding the proportion of wild and cultured sea trout in this river basin. This paper is a review of methods applied to identify individuals from natural and artificial sea trout spawning in rivers, and it proposes using genetic techniques as an alternative to traditional marking methods. A set of 13 microsatellite loci are proposed that are characterized by high selectivity. Using negative controls while simulating the assignment of parental pairs revealed that the number of loci in the set was highly significant and should not be reduced. This method could be useful in the proposed assessment of the proportions of wild and cultured fish in Polish rivers.
Robert Kasner, Józef Flizikowski, Andrzej Tomporowski, Weronika Kruszelnicka and Adam Idzikowski
This study focuses on the evaluation of the benefits and ecological costs that occur in the life cycle of a wind power plant. The study constitutes an attempt to expand upon previously conducted research on the analysis of costs and benefits in the stages of production, operation and post-consumer management of wind turbines. The aim of the study adopted research methodology, analysis and assessment of the benefits and environmental impacts of the Vestas V90/105m 2 MW wind turbine throughout its life cycle. Original assessment indicators of the benefits and ecological costs occurring throughout a wind power plant’s life cycle for environmental safety management, were proposed and verified.
The construction of cut-off walls is a common solution applied in such disciplines as land reclamation and landfill containment. Most commonly the construction of vertical barriers is based on cut-off wall mono or diphase technology with the use of bentonite-cement mixture as a filling material. The content of the paper is focused on groundwater flow and transport numerical modeling conducted on landfill areas where vertical bentonite barriers were constructed. The modeling process was conducted with the use of FEMWATER software which employs analysis based on finite element method. There are two examples of the software application presented in the paper which concern such case studies, i.e., reclamation of Radiowo and Łubna landfill sites. These examples are provided to prove that the appropriate investigation of ground conditions as well as definition of initial and boundary conditions and correct selection of material parameters to be fed into the software, are crucial for the overall modeling process. Moreover, the comparison of results obtained from the numerical modeling and the groundwater monitoring on site is presented for one of the case studies.
The paper presents knowledge from the area of economic efficiency assessment of the environmental investments, in the link with environmental management with context of social responsible business and their mutual connection, on the base of CBA method. CBA method creates basis for the software CBA1.1, which was created for the needs of business practise for the small and medium enterprises in the Slovak Republic.