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The article studies the reforms that took place in the education system of the Republic of Poland in 1999 and proceeded in 2009. The structural changes were characterized; the types of educational institutions were given; the changes in programs, forms and methods of a teacher with a student work were analyzed; evolutionary processes in the evaluation system were traced. Special attention was paid to structural changes in school education. The problems of the education system reform in Poland were highlighted (the convergence of learning with the realities of modern life, the upbringing of a modern individual, deprived stereotypes of the past, the democratization of the education system in the light of European experience, preparation for an accession to the EU, the self-regulation possibility of a new educationsystem). The new accents of the school education contents were analyzed (safe and healthy for the pupil’s health, focusing on the construction of their own values systems, their development and improvement, the obligation to enhance children’s independence through the provision of a high level of internal self-government, the elimination of a single educational programme in the senior classes and the opportunity for students to choose their own future profession). It has been concluded that reforms implemented at the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries in the Republic of Poland reflected obvious advantages in systemic educational processes. One of the major trends in systemic reform was the introduction of the three-level structure of the school system “6 + 3 + 3” (six year primary school, three-year gymnasium and a three-year profile lyceum). The result of reforms was the adaptation of education levels and upbringing to periods of children and young people development, ensuring their better understanding of themselves, other people and the world; educational chances equalization; improving the quality of education. The prospective areas of research in this area include the study of reforms in preschool education as a starting point for a holistic education system in Poland, the disclosure of organizational and content aspects of child’s preparation for schooling.
The accumulation of knowledge and its use have become important factors that promote economic development as they contribute to a countryís competitiveness in the global economy. The basic significance of research is obtained by defining new approaches in the organisation, function and efficiency of the higher education system (HES) by emphasising its qualitative aspects. The aim of the article is to describe the influence of education reform on economic competitiveness, paying a special attention to analysing and evaluating international experiences from an interdisciplinary perspective, including economics, pedagogy, etc. Quantitative indicators are used to characterise specific features of the HES and the interaction of this system in the overall context of state development. Some aspects of the Latvian HES are also analysed. The economic activity of inhabitants often directly depends on their level of education. In order to reorganise the Latvian HES and increase its competitiveness and efficiency, thus ensuring quality and availability, the Latvian education system must define a middle-term (4ñ5 years) and long-term (10ñ15 years) development plan that is coordinated with national economic development.
At the end of the twentieth century the Kyrgyz Republic got the opportunity to create a higher education system, as well as the way was paved for the creation of a common educational space in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), which resulted in adopting CIS-wide a number of documents that form the legal basis for a common educational space. Analysis of reforms in education system of Kyrgyzstan allows concluding that in general, the state educational policy of sovereign Kyrgyzstan was entirely aimed at solving strategic problems of the education sector, and thus at improving the socio-economic well-being of the country. Lack of continuity and the proper funding of the adopted state programs have negative impact on the effectiveness of educational reform. Therefore, a number of measures ought to be taken in order to improve the efficiency of the education system reform.
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