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Sea buckthorn leaves and branches presently create waste-/by-products of harvesting after pruning the plants. It is already known that sea buckthorn berries are important for their chemical composition and based on this occupy a wide field in nutrition. We raised the idea that sea buckthorn leaves, branches, and especially the bark, have also an extraordinary chemical composition like the berries. The aim of this study was to describe these by-products. For this purpose, detailed full analyses of corresponding samples from Russia (seven varieties) and Germany (four varieties) were performed. Especially the dry mass, fat content, proteins, carbohydrates, starch content, and crude fiber were investigated to obtain an overview. Minor components like total phenol content, metals, and water- and fat-soluble vitamins were also studied. All analytical parameters were based on an official collection of analysis methods (German ASU - amtliche Sammlung von Untersuchungsverfahren). The results of the full analysis of leaves and branches show some interesting aspects about the differences between male and female plants. Furthermore, we observed differences between Russian and German sea buckthorn varieties. Investigation of minor components showed that vitamins were present in very low amount (< 0.1 %).


Strategic planning is generally performed internally and particularly by the organization. Another, lesser discussed issue of non-adequate strategic planning is that corporate management is unable to outline its long term resources without it. Supporting and ensuring the feasibility of individual set-ups of this function, which is probably the most important of all, is without doubt an expanded task of strategic control. From the managers’ point of view, the time spent on managing and controlling the individual tasks is also a type of resource to be managed. The strategy is the subject of development on a regular basis – that is, also an expanded task of strategic control – and managers should always take it into consideration alongside the operational tasks, since the design, development and implementation of strategy are affected by high-risk events of the external environment. The mapping of sustainable development at the microeconomic level is part of corporate social responsibility. Sustainable development requires global thinking and action. This is reflected in the fact that, in their economic decisions, businesses should strive for the economical use of scarce resources, achieve a balance between resource development and preservation, and ensure an appropriate dialogue, the so-called “resource” of stakeholders. The aim of the paper is to demonstrate the role of controlling in sustainable development using theoretical modelling.

such as stance duration) on the muscle to be calculated. The concept underlying the Framework focuses on the interactions and compromises between economical use of muscle and mechanical (work-minimizing) economy. Despite advances in computer technology, attempting to model this interaction using detailed musculoskeletal models and dynamic optimization approaches without a guiding framework would result in a parameter space that is impractical. Consider for instance the greatly increased complexity associated with extending full forward dynamic simulation approaches

-induced augmented bioactive compounds in purslane Portulaca oleracea L.) for possible economical use. Food Chem 2015; 169: 439-447. 25236249 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.08.019 Alam MA Juraimi AS Rafii MY Hamid AA Aslani F Alam MZ Effects of salinity and salinity-induced augmented bioactive compounds in purslane Portulaca oleracea L.) for possible economical use Food Chem 2015 169 439 447 42 Mulry KR, Hanson BA, Dudle DA. Alternative strategies in response to saline stress in two varieties of Portulaca oleracea (purslane). PloS ONE 2015; 10(9): e0138723. 10.1371/journal

gives rise to the expectation that in the longer term a more economical use of land will prevail. The municipalities’ assessment of the need to take measures to combat shrinkage confirmed the relevance of this topic. With the exception of municipalities that are not confronted with shrinkage, none of the municipalities surveyed doubted the importance of this topic. The measures to counter shrinkage included different approaches from using subsidies to invest in the old town centres to make them more attractive rather than using subsidies for the removal of vacant and