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(16), Central Bank Review CBR, 19 also the growth of the export sector, strong domestic demand and improved productivity. Katarzyna Kolodziejczyk, - POLAND IN THE EUROPEAN UNION. TEN YEARS OF MEMBERSHIP [2016] Vol (40), Revista UNISCI / UNISCI Journal, RU 1 Speaking about Georgia, neither in the transitional nor in the post-transitional period it was able to create a competitive and strong private sector. As it can be seen, strong private sector and domestic demand play a significant role in economic growth. Georgia's economic transformation in numbers There are


The paper analyses transformation process in Hungary between 1989 and 2004. The goal of this paper is to analyze and evaluate the transformation process in Hungary. The structure of the paper follows this general goal. First of all, an analysis of economic development of the country before the fall of the communist regime is carried out because this determined the whole process which followed. Then we shortly mention political development that had a significant impact on the transformation process and its results. In the next part we concentrate on the main steps in the economic transformation, and consequently we devote space to specific aspects - privatization, for example. The main economic indicators of this period are analyzed in the final part. We conclude that the transformation process achieved its main economic goal and the economy’s ability to grow increased. At the same time, however, the transformation process created environment for the subsequent economic problems.

Socio-economic transformation of small towns in East Germany after 1990 - Colditz case study

The article presents the main demographic and social, as well as functional and spatial changes that took place in Colditz after 1990. The town is inhabited by 4,870 people (2009) and is situated in Saxony, in the area of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR). The aim of the article is to present the main changes, which took place there after East and West Germany reunited in 1990. The author describes demographic and social changes in the population size, population growth, migration balance, unemployment, and other elements of urban community. Moreover, the article presents the changes in the economic-functional structure, such as de-industrialisation, succession of urban functions, and tourism development, as well as the main spatial changes in Colditz, such as architectural revitalisation and reconstruction of urban infrastructure. In the conclusions, the author briefly presents potential directions in the future development of the town.

). Costs and Benefits of Independence: Slovenia in Communist Economies and Economic Transformation, The World Bank, 1993, WPS 1126. DAMIJAN, J. P., KNELL, M. S., MAJCEN, B., ROJEC, M. (2003) Technology Transfer Through FDI in Top-10 Transition Countries: How Important are Direct Effects, Horizontal and Vertical Spillovers?. William Davidson Institute Working Paper No. 549. DYKER, D. A. (2000). Slovenia: The Economy. In Central and South-Eastern Europe (pp. 612-619). London: Europa Publications Limited. Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU). (2003, 2004, 2009). Country

Demographic Situation of Rural Population in Ukraine in the Period of Intensive Socio-Economic Transformation

The paper attempts to deal with the problem of the demographic situation of rural population in Ukraine during intensive socio-economic transformations (1990-2007). In the time-spatial depiction there were analysed the following elements of the demographic and socio-economic situation of rural population: changes in population number, birth rate, mortality rate and structure, infant mortality rate, fertility rate, population's age and gender structure, natural increase and migration rate, employment level and structure, unemployment rate, level and structure of income and basic household expenditure, poverty rate, level of satisfaction with one's own material situation. It was found that Ukraine has seen a deep demographic crisis resulting from historical and socio-economic factors. It is also a consequence of the steady impediment and falsification of agricultural reforms.

Transformation in Poland

The paper analyses transformation process in Poland between 1989 and 2004. The goal of the paper is to clarify the most important steps in the economic policy that were carried out in this period. The structure of the paper follows this general goal. We first of all analyse economic development of the country before the fall of the communist regime because this determined the whole following process. Then we shortly mention political development that had a significant impact on the transformation process, and its results. In the next part we concentrate on the main steps in the economic transformation, and consequently devote place to specific aspects - for example privatisation. The final part analyses the main economic indicators of this period. We conclude that the transformation process achieved its main economic goal and the economy's ability to grow increased.

, Toruń, pp. 139-149. Zuzańska-Żyśko, E 2005, ‘Economic Transformation of Small SilesianTowns in the Year 1990-1999’, in Cities in the transfoming post-communist countries: ten years of economic, social and spatial experience, ed E. Nowosielska & J Parysek, Geographia Polonica , vol. 78, no 1, pp. 137-149, Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, Warszawa, Poland.

Polish-Russian Economic Relations Under the Conditions of System Transformation

The rapid economic transformation in Central and Eastern Europe, modelled on Western economies and based, in some aspects, on neoliberal principles, has found the region's countries to a bigger (Eastern European countries) or lesser (Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary) degree unprepared. The resulting economic recession, especially in Russia, has had an adverse effect on mutual trade between Poland and Russia. In order to improve economic relations with Russia and increase the trade volume, Poland, remaining within the bounds of EU standards and regulations, needs to adapt the commodity structure of Polish exports to the needs of the Russian market.

Szkoły Pedagogicznej w Bydgoszczy, Administracja Publiczna” [Scholarly papers of the Teaching College in Bydgoszcz, Public administration], vol. 1, p. 55-71 Czaja S., Fiedor B., Graczyk A., Jakubczyk Z., (1994), Polityka ekologiczna w okresie transformacji gospodarczej w Polsce [Environmental policy in the period of economic transformation in Poland], Wrocław. Fok K., (1997). Komu odszkodowania? [Compensation for whom?], “Asekuracja & Re” [Security & Re], August 1997, p. 10 Gomułka S., (2016), Transformacja i rozwój. Teoria i polityka gospodarcza [Transformation and


It was examined whether positive changes in maternal SES and medical facilities in Poland 20 years after social and economic transformation weakened the role of maternal age in shaping perinatal outcome. Data comprised of 2,979 children born in 2000 and 2,992 – born in 2015. To test the differences between the frequency of indicators of adverse perinatal outcome the chi-square test was applied. The influence of maternal age on the perinatal outcome was estimated using Generalized Linear Models (GLMs), with binomial error distribution and the logit link function. The infants survival was examined using survival analysis. Gestational age and birth weight were influenced by mother’s age and the year of survey. Infants of adolescent and older mothers represented the groups with a risk of adverse perinatal outcome: an increase of preterm births and higher risk of having children with LBW in the group of adolescent mothers than in mothers aged >35, infants born SGA and LGA found in both adolescent and adult mothers. GLMs confirmed the impact of maternal age and the year of survey on perinatal outcome. The Cox proportional hazard models showed that the year of survey was the only factor affecting the risk of infants’ death. The impact of maternal age on adverse perinatal outcome can be counterbalanced by positive changes in social and economic standard of living of women, improvement in neonatal medical care and better equipment of hospital wards in 2015 as compared to 2000.