The objective of the paper was to present straw pellets production technology and to determine their production costs. The paper presents also the cost structure and economic effectiveness of pellets production. Tests were carried out in EKO-BIOMASA company which produces pellets. It is located in Biechów in Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship. Unit costs of pellets production were: 310.20 PLN ∙ t-1 for option 1, 285.40 PLN ∙ t-1 for option 2 and 278.90 PLN ∙ t-1 for option 3. The most favourable was option 3 when the pellet production was carried out on the technology line in the 3-shift system day and night. In all three variants of pellet production, the highest costs were in case of electric energy. Its participation in the cost structure in relation to the option was within 42% (option 3) and 38% (option 1). The obtained indicator of economic effectiveness for all the investigated options was higher than one.
The Cost and The Economic Effectiveness Analysis of the Winter Rape Production Technologies (Brassica Napus L. SSP. Oleifera) on Heavy Soils
Winter rape farming practices were carried out between 2007 and 2009 on heavy soils under the conditions of the East Slovak Lowland. The influence of two levels of nitrogen fertilizers and three soil tillage technologies on winter rape seed yields was monitored. The costs of growing and the growing technology cost effectiveness were evaluated.
The influence of production year 2009 on winter rape seed yield was statistically significant. The effect of conventional tillage variant on rape seed yields was more significant compared with the variant with minimum tillage. The lowest yield of oilseed rape was obtained in a non-tillage variant. Higher dose of nitrogen fertilizers had higher statistically significant effect on winter rape yield compared with lower dose of nitrogen fertilizers.
The total cost of one ton of winter rape seed varied within the monitored years, different soil tillage technologies and levels of fertilization. In average of monitored years, the lowest costs of winter rape seed production were at minimum tillage (258.37 € t-1 for variant N150; 259.81 € t-1 for variant N200). At direct sowing, the costs were 400.14 € (variant N150), and 372.41 € (variant N200), however, the yields were very low.
Economic effectiveness evaluation showed that the winter rape produced by direct sowing was unprofitable, either with or without subsidy. The highest economic effectiveness was achieved at the minimum tillage variant. This variant was profitable even without subsidies, using both fertilization levels, but it was more profitable at the lower level of nitrogen fertilization. The profitability of conventional tillage variant was smaller.
Zorica Vasiljević, Nikola Popović, Bojan Dimitrijević, Dragan Vujović and Branka Kalanović Bulatović
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– Economic analysis of the effectiveness of stocking lakes exploited by Lake Farm Ltd. in Ełk – Komun. Ryb. 4: 5-12 (in Polish).
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An inspection interval planning is considered in order to limit the probability of any fatigue failure (FFP) in a fleet of N aircraft (AC) and to provide an economical effectiveness of airline (AL) under the limitation of fatigue failure rate (FFR). A solution of these two problems is based on the processing of the result of acceptance fatigue test of a new type of aircraft. During this test an estimate of the parameter ϴ, of a fatigue crack growth trajectory has been obtained. If the result of this acceptance test is too bad then this new type of aircraft will not be used in service. A redesign of this project should be done. If the result the acceptance test is pretty good then the reliability of the aircraft fleet and the airline will be provided without inspections. For this strategy there is a maximum of FFP (a maximum of FFR) as a function of an unknown parameter ᶿ. This maximum can be limited by the use of the offered here procedure of the choice of the inspection number. The economic effectiveness of the AL operation is considered using the theory of Markov process with rewords.
Development investment capacity of farms depends on their potential and scale of production, and thus its revenue, which determines the scale of investment purchases. Most specialized farms have growth potential. Farmers take great interest in modernization and investing in new technologies, machinery and agricultural land, as confirmed by market analysis. Literature references offer information regarding the needs and investment opportunities of territorially diversified farms running conventional production, however the aim of the work is to determine the investment possibilities of organic farms with various production branches. The research included 50 farms certified as ecological producers. In order to answer the question which type of business has the greatest development potential, the examined facilities were divided into branch groups.
Experiments with soybean on heavy soils of East Slovak Lowlands were established in the years 2010–2012. The effect of mineral fertilisers and soil conditioner application on soybean’s yield using three tillage systems (minimum tillage (MT), conventional tillage (CT) and no tillage (NT)) was studied. Production costs and economic efficiency of crop management practices were evaluated. The influence of production year on soybean crop was significant in the order of 2011, 2010 and 2012. Statistical evaluation confirmed that the effects of CT and MT systems were more significant compared with NT system. No significant differences were found between the variants of the mineral fertiliser and conditioner application. Differences in the total cost of soybean cultivation, as measured between years, were not significant. Fertilisation variants with application of HUMAC agro and NPK generated the highest costs. On the other hand, the lowest costs were achieved at fertilisation variants with application of NPK alone. Comparing tillage variants, the CT system had the highest costs each year. Significant savings were achieved on MT and NT variants. During the experimental period, a profit was reached on all variants. Applying NPK alone, the highest profit was achieved in 2010 and 2012 using MT system and in 2011 with CT tillage. The variant b2 with PRP sol in the years 2010 and 2011 was the most profitable using NT system and in 2012 using MT. Variant with HUMAC agro was the most profitable in each year using MT. The lowest income threshold for zero profitability was calculated in 2012. Using CT farming techniques at NPK fertilisation variant b1 in 2012, the income threshold was 1.85 t/ha, at variant b2 PRP sol it was 2.10 t/ha and at variant b3 HUMAC agro it was 2.42 t/ha. At MT and NT systems, the income threshold values for zero profitability were lower.
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 Vranay, F
Justyna Długosiewicz, Stanisław Zając, Emilia Wysocka-Fijorek and Małgorzata Sułkowska
. Economiceffectiveness of natural and artificial regeneration of Scots pine stands in the Forest District Nowa Dęba (in Polish with English summary). Sylwan, 163 (5), 373–384. DOI: 10.26202/sylwan.2018124
Dobrowolska, D. 2007. Forest natural regeneration in stands damaged by wind in North-Eastern Poland (in Polish with English summary). Leśne Prace Badawcze , 68 (2), 45–60.
Dobrowolska, D. 2008. Natural regeneration on post-fire area in Rudy Raciborskie Forest District (in Polish with English summary). Leśne Prace Badawcze , 69 (3), 255