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Abstract

This study focuses on the evaluation of the benefits and ecological costs that occur in the life cycle of a wind power plant. The study constitutes an attempt to expand upon previously conducted research on the analysis of costs and benefits in the stages of production, operation and post-consumer management of wind turbines. The aim of the study adopted research methodology, analysis and assessment of the benefits and environmental impacts of the Vestas V90/105m 2 MW wind turbine throughout its life cycle. Original assessment indicators of the benefits and ecological costs occurring throughout a wind power plant’s life cycle for environmental safety management, were proposed and verified.

Abstract

The work describes the components of efficiency in the form of energy, economic and ecological benefits and outlays in the life cycle, i.e. construction and operation of machinery, equipment and power systems, on the example of wind farms and the most important models useful in designing their construction and operation for increasing system safety in three areas: environment, technical system, and human health. Technical conditions (ideas, constructions and processes) necessary to increase the benefits and / or reduce energy, economic and ecological expenditure of the operation and the prospects for effective development of the global, European and national wind energy market are characterized. A preliminary analysis of the relations of operators, workpieces, live and artificial objects of the 2-MW wind farm environment was carried out, for the possibility of increasing the benefits and reduction of outlays as a result of compensating for the destructiveness of the system, the environment and man.

Abstract

Research purpose. The high-speed railway (HSR) construction project in the Baltic States is the largest joint infrastructure project since the restoration of independence of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia. Rail Baltica (RB) is considered as the most energy-efficient project having the lowest environmental impact. However, the issue of energy consumption of the project was not sufficiently addressed either in the investment justification of the RB construction or in the relevant research works regarding the project. The aim of the current research is to determine the indicators of energy consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions intensity of the Latvian section of RB, since they are the key factors of the quantitative assessment of sustainability.

Design/Methodology/Approach. Critical analysis of the academic research works and reports of the official international organizations dedicated to the topic of energy consumption and CO2 emissions of HSR was conducted prior to the calculation of the above-mentioned indicators. The method of calculation based on International Union of Railways (UIC) was used in order to conduct the cluster analysis within the framework of current work. The main points considered are electricity consumption, carbon dioxide emissions, and level of passenger and freight demand. Statistical databases of UIC and International Energy Agency were used.

Findings. The calculations carried out by the authors of the given article demonstrate substantial figures of CO2 emissions intensity for Latvian section of the project related to the train load rate and traffic intensity which is evened out only by the CO2 emissions factor in Latvia.

Originality/Value/Practical implications. On this basis the authors present the directions for future research required for the development of the effective strategy for the Latvian Republic with the aim of achieving the increase in the RB project’s ecological efficiency.

reservoirs in changing environments - Limnol. Oceanogr. 41: 1087-1092. Hillbricht-Ilkowska A., Patalas K. 1967 - Methods for evaluating zooplankton biomass production and some issues with quantitative methods - Ekol. pol. 13: 139-172 (in Polish). Hillbricht-Ilkowska A., Zdanowski B. 1978 - Effect of thermal effluents and retention time on lake functioning and ecological efficiencies in plankton communities - Int. Revue ges. Hydrobiol. 63: 609-617. Hillbricht-Ilkowska A., Zdanowski B. 1988a - Changes in lake ecosystems connected with the power-generating industry (the

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. (1982): Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties. American Society for Agronomy. Madison, WI, USA, 595 - 624 pp. CHANG, J.T., ZHANG, C.C., QIAO, B.Y., LI, B.Y. (2012): Ecological efficiency of intercropping wheat with Chinese jujube. J. Fruit Sci., 29: 274 - 277 (In Chinese) CHENG, Z., GREWAL, P.S., STINNER, B.R., HURTO, K.A., HAMZA, H.B. (2008): Effects of long-term turfgrass management practices on soil nematode community and nutrient pools. Appl. Soil Ecol., 38: 174 - 184. DOI: 10.1016/j.apsoil.2007.10.007 EKSCHMITT, K., BAKONYI, G

. 2007. Super-efficiency model for ranking efficient units in data envelopment analysis. Applied Mathematics and Computation 184 (2): 638-648. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amc.2006.06.063 . Sierak, J. 2016. The role of local government in the process of stimulating the development of the local economy. Journal of Management and Financial Sciences 25 (9): 61-82. Storto, C. L. 2016. Ecological efficiency based ranking of cities: a combined DEA cross efficiency and shannon’s entropy method. Sustainability 8: 124. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/su8020124 . Sztando, A

"eco-efficiency" or "ecologic efficiency" as used for practical work show a considerable range and variety, which is why the term is also qualified as "opalescent" ( Allen 2002 : 9; Scholl/Clausen 1999: 10, own translation; for an overview see Günther 2005 ). Schaltegger (1999) is often quoted, who denotes the ratio of added value and added damage "economic-ecologic efficiency" or, in short, "eco-efficiency". In this context the term "added damage" is defined as "the sum total of all environmental impact caused by business operations and weighed according to their

; c. technology and implementation including issues of ecological efficiency of techniques and technologies used in the processes of service provision, in the process of investment implementation, performance of tasks or provision of public services As the practitioners emphasize, the term evolves and eco-innovations can be divided into three groups: Technological (implementation of new techniques or technologies in the process of providing communal services); 1. Organizational (regarding the method of providing municipal services or implementation of