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Zdzisław Stelmasiak, Jerzy Larisch, Jacek Pielecha and Dariusz Pietras
1. Barroso P., Ribas X., Domingues J., De Sella E., Garcia J M., Study of dual-fuel (diesel+natural gas) particle mater and CO2 emissions of a heavy-duty diesel engine during transient operations, Combustion Engines, No. 2/2013 (153) ISSN 0138-0346, pp. 28-39.
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 Giernalczyk, M., Analysis possibilities of cost reduction related to boil-off fuel gas being carried on LNG Gas Carriers, PAN Journal of KONES Powertrain and Transport, European Science Society of Powertrain and Transport Publication, Warsaw 2007.
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 Bo, Y., Xing, W., Chengxun, X., Yifu, L., Ke, Z., Ming-Chia, L., Experimental study of the effects of natural gas injection timing on the combustion performance and emissions of a turbocharged common rail dual-fuel engine , Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 87, 2014.
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Mariusz Giernalczyk, Filip Łoński and Wojciech Kaniak
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This paper shows the latest evolution trends of propulsion plants of modern LNG tankers. Features of conventional and advanced steam plants were confronted with propulsion plants such as Dual Fuel – Diesel electric and plants equipped with slow speed two stroke diesel engines. Propulsion plants were compared in terms of plant efficiency, reliability and environmental. The shipyard’s order book and the active fleet of LNG carriers with a capacity above 65000 m3 were analyzed.
Degradation of the environment is nowadays believed to be the most alarming problem that needs to be solved. Global warming and environmental pollution are predicted to cause a catastrophic chain reaction leading to species extinction, mass emigration due to rising sea levels and global crisis. The only solution suggested by international organizations is the immediate reduction of greenhouse gases and other harmful substances. Marine transportation harmful substances into the atmosphere are recognized to be a significant source of global atmospheric pollution. Despite the high efficiency of marine diesel engines, their impact on the environment is considerable. Due to environmentally friendly policies, modern engines concerns about not only efficiency but also mainly about s aspects. This article analyses and compares marine s exhaust gases reduction methods. Especially the most harmful substances emitted by ships were taken into consideration. The article presents the most crucial law regulations of harmful substances to the atmosphere, pointing at actual and possible future implementations. The most complex methods allowing meeting the latest limits were presented. Pros and cons of available control methods were thoroughly described and methods were compared. The most adequate methods form the effectiveness and economical point of view was pointed out.
It was presented the possibilities and ways of methane transport by sea. They are still searched new better possibilities of methane transport especially when the gas mining is at the sea. The advantages of using methane as marine fuel are discussed because it seems to be ecological and cheaper one. The lack of LNG bunkering network for vessels is the biggest problem to share methane as a marine fuel. Only a few ports inside the Baltic Sea area give such possibility. Of course, the network is under construction but the development goes too slowly to fulfil the International Maritime Organization (IMO) requirements on 2020 year. A challenge is to prevent failure during cargo operations, loading hose failure, pipe rupture, manifold leak, tank overflowing, or rupture etc. The risk of failure is increased due to very low temperature of liquid methane and the quick temperature change of all elements of cargo system during operations. The aim of the work was to show the indicated problems of vessel’s fuelling by LNG. It was discussed the methane slip during cargo operations and fuelling. The misfires during burning processes into the engines are the biggest problem due to very narrow window of methane self-ignition. It happens the misfiring or knocking cycles. It disturbs the correct work of the engine, resulting in quick engine malfunction or damage.
 Tutak, W., Bioethanol E85 as a fuel for dualfuel diesel engine , Energy Conversion and Management, 86, pp. 39-48, 2014.
 Jamrozik, A., The effect of the alcohol content in the fuel mixture on the performance and emissions of a direct injection diesel engine fueled with diesel-methanol and diesel-ethanol blends , Energy Conversion and Management, 148, pp. 461-476, 2017.
 Jamrozik, A., Tutak, W., Pyrc, M., Gruca, M., Kočiško, M., Study on co-combustion of diesel fuel with oxygenated alcohols in a compression ignition dual-fuel
Oleksandr Cherednichenko, Serhiy Serbin and Marek Dzida
The paper considers the issue of thermo-chemical recovery of engine’s waste heat and its further use for steam conversion of the associated gas for oil and gas floating units. The characteristics of the associated gas are presented, and problems of its application in dual-fuel medium-speed internal combustion engines are discussed. Various variants of combined diesel-gas turbine power plant with thermo-chemical heat recovery are analyzed. The heat of the gas turbine engine exhaust gas is utilized in a thermo-chemical reactor and a steam generator. The engines operate on synthesis gas, which is obtained as a result of steam conversion of the associated gas. Criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of the developed schemes are proposed. The results of mathematical modeling of processes in a 14.1 MW diesel-gas turbine power plant with waste heat recovery are presented. The effect of the steam/associated gas ratio on the efficiency criteria is analyzed. The obtained results indicate relatively high effectiveness of the scheme with separate high and low pressure thermo-chemical reactors for producing fuel gas for both gas turbine and internal combustion engines. The calculated efficiency of such a power plant for considered input parameters is 45.6%.