The objective of the research was to evaluate soil compaction with selected indexes and to determine the relation between them including results obtained with Proctor’s method. Measurements of penetration resistance and shear vane, dry density of soil particles (ρd) and their moisture were made in layers in the following depths: 25-30, 35-40, 45-50 and 55-60 cm. Moreover, the maximum volumetric density of soil particles, particles size distribution, content of calcium carbonate and humus, density of solid particles, reaction, plastic and liquid limit were determined with Proctor's method (ρds). Also, packing density and natural density were measured. It was found out that the investigated soils may be generally included to excessively compacted and susceptible to compaction to an average and small degree. It was shown that soil may be recognized as excessively compacted when the quotient ρd/ρds exceeds the value of 0.87.
Artificial neural network (ANN) was used to predict the dry density of soil from its thermal conductivity. The study area is a farmland located in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Southwestern Nigeria. Thirty points were sampled in a grid pattern, and the thermal conductivities were measured using KD-2 Pro thermal analyser. Samples were collected from 20 sample points to determine the dry density in the laboratory. MATLAB was used to perform the ANN analysis in order to predict the dry density of soil. The ANN was able to predict dry density with a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 0.50 and a correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.80. The validation of our model between the actual and predicted dry densities shows R2 to be 0.99. This fit shows that the model can be applied to predict the dry density of soil in study areas where the thermal conductivities are known.
Cores extracted from trees to assess wood chemistry are generally not used to assess basic density in eucalypt pulpwood breeding programmes, as the measurement of basic density requires high temperature drying. However, both wood chemistry and air-dried density can be assessed on the same core. This study found that the inter-trait genetic correlation between core air-dried and basic density to be effectively equal to one in two Tasmanian Eucalyptus nitens progeny trials. This implies that selection for basic density could be undertaken using air-dried density with little or no reduction in genetic gain, thus negating the need to extract a separate core to assess basic density and wood chemistry. The adoption of this practice could considerably reduce the cost of assessing these traits in eucalypt breeding programmes.
Bottom ash from EC Gdańsk and dredged material taken from the mouth of The Vistula were mixed to form an engineering material used for dike construction. Mixtures with different bottom ash content were tested in laboratory to determine its basic physical and mechanical properties. The optimum bottom ash-dredged material mixture, built in the corps of the test dike, contains 70% of ash. The optimum bottom ash content in the mixture was chosen taking into account high internal friction angle, good compaction and reduced filtration coefficient. The maximum dry density of the mixtures was measured in Proctor test for the mixtures formed in laboratory and on samples taken from the test dike. Minimum and maximum void ratio were also determined.
Geopolymers are polymeric materials resulting from the polycondensation reaction of alumino-silicate materials in a strongly alkaline environment. In consequence, stable polymeric networks of aluminosilicates are formed. The binding potential of FA (fly ash) amorphous component can also be “activated” by mechanical activation, which unfolds new possibilities of FA utilization. Mechanical activation, such as the method, which can improve FA reactivity, is often applied for different applications for geopolymers based on ground fly ash. This paper presents possibilities of preparation of geopolymer mixtures based on modified (ground) FA (TEKO – produced by the Heating plant Kosice), which was used in varying percentages to unground (original) FA. The particle size of the original unground FA (PVT) was 84.7μm and particle size of the ground FA (T60S1) was 52.8μm. Properties to be evaluated were selected from the expected application point of view – protective coating of concrete. Next properties of geopolymer mixtures after 28 days of hardening were tested and evaluated: dry density, absorptivity, capillarity, compressive and flexural strength.
The objective of this paper was to compare the results of soil material compaction carried out with the use of the Proctor and uniaxial compression tests in order to find relations between these methods. Soil material in the form of loose mass was collected from the layer deposited at the depth from 35 to 60 cm in order to determine its typical properties (textural group, density of solid particles, humus content, reaction, plastic and liquid limits) and in order to compact it in the Proctor apparatus and in the uniaxial compression test. Results of both tests were used for construction of regression models reflecting the course of the unit stress (Pρdp), necessary to generate compaction equal to the dry density of solid particles obtained in the Proctor apparatus (ρdp) in relation to the sample moisture (ws). It was stated that the stress value Pρdp on the soil sample in the uniaxial compression test depends significantly on ws. It was proved that for the purpose of comparing the results of both tests, the uniaxial stress of samples must be performed in conditions of their lateral expansion. It was also proved that the use of the uniaxial test with possible lateral expansion of soil with a model sample, a diameter of which is 100 and the height is 30 mm, one may determine the obtained compaction with the use of the plate movement value.
The objective of the paper was to verify previously obtained results of research on the impact of the plate diameter on the determined value of pre-compaction stress of soil (NG) with a wider selection of dimensions of samples. Tests were carried out on samples with a diameter (D) of 100 mm and heights (H) of 30, 50 or 100 mm produced from the soil material (M) or collected (NNS) from subsoil with the granulation group of: silt loam, loam, sandy loam, sandy clay loam. The following soil properties were determined: granulation type, density of the solid phase, content of humus and calcium carbonate, reaction, plastic and liquid limit. Properties of samples were described with moisture, dry density of solid particles, porosity of aeration, degree of plasticity and saturation. Samples were loaded with plates of varied diameters. The NG value was calculated with the method of searching for the crossing point of tangents with the secondary stress curve and the virgin stresses curve (a traditional method). It was stated that the plate diameter (d) and sample height (H) do not influence the measurement results when the relation d/D is within 0.5 ≤ d/D ≤ 0.8 and the ratio D/H equals 2. It is possible to omit the condition d/D in a situation when soil is low cohesive and its degree of moisture is ca. 0.41-0.44.
This study investigated the suitability of pulverized snail shell (PSS) as partial replacement of cement stabilized soil in foundation constructions. Preliminary and engineering tests were carried out on the soil samples. The optimum cement content fixed at 11% in correlation to Unified Soil Classification System, the PSS was introduced at varying percentages of 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10%. Results revealed that, addition of PSS and 11% cement to lateritic soil caused a reduction in both liquid limits and plasticity index and an increased in plastic limits for all samples. Engineering tests showed the maximum dry density at optimum cement increased from 1493.34 ± 103.58 kg.m−3 to 1632 ± 435.81 kg.m−3 for sample A; 1476.77 ± 367.51 kg.m−3 to 1668 ± 202.58 kg.m−3 for sample B; 1460.77 ± 623.58 kg.m−3 to 1651 ± 135.45 kg.m−3 for sample C. The CBR recorded highest value at 4%PSS optimum cement for all samples. The addition of pulverized snail shell increased the strength of cement stabilized lateritic soil for structural foundation construction.
The bondability of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) wood with a one-component polyurethane (1K PUR) structural (load-bearing) adhesive has been investigated at the Simonyi Károly Faculty at the University of West Hungary. Our trial is considered a preliminary investigation in order to set the convenient parameters of bonding for the structural gluing of beech wood. Wood samples were characterized by their oven dry density, and the surfaces to be bonded were characterized by their surface roughness and surface tension after machining. Based on our measurements, we have made a suggestion on the value of the ensemble of open time, applied quantity and pressure, pressing time, and surface preparation/surface roughness parameters which result in good bonding and a shear strength higher than 10 N/mm2. Furthermore, we investigated the penetration of the adhesive into the surface and state that one-sided adhesive application results in differing levels of penetration. In order to check the suitability of beech wood for glued laminated timber production, further investigations according to EN standards are necessary. Based upon the considerations noted above, delamination tests are already under evaluation.