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Drugresistance is a wide spread and well known phenomenon among anticancer medications and platinum drugs are not exceptions. The use of these drugs in chemotherapy is hampered by extrinsic and intrinsic resistance of cells. Although many cancer cells are initially susceptible to chemotherapy with platinum drugs, over time they may develop resistance through more efficient DNA damage repair, drug inactivation with glutathione and metallothioneins and drug efflux with various transport systems located in cell membrane. In this review the chemical
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Rao Muhammad Abid Khan, Sana Anwar and Zaid Ahmed Pirzada
. To our knowledge this is the first comprehensive report of the prevalence and the antibiotic resistance pattern of GAS from Pakistan. Furthermore, this study may help in discouraging the misuse of antibiotics that leads to the emergence in drugresistance.
Materials and methods
Collection of S. pyogenes strains
This study was performed in the Department of Microbiology, University of Karachi from July 2013 to June 2014. To obtain strains and basic patient information such as sex, age, specimen and disease, assistance was obtained from laboratories
Athanasios Tselebonis, Evangelia Nena, Christos Nikolaidis, Theocharis Konstantinidis, Christos Kontogiorgis, Maria Panopoulou and Theodore C. Constantinidis
Objective: To monitor microbes, focusing on drug resistance, on the hands of the personnel of four departments of a tertiary hospital (ICU, neonatal unit, internal medicine ward and surgical ward) and explore differences between departments, professions and genders.
Materials and methods: Hand sampling from 125 healthcare employees was conducted followed by isolation, identification and antibiotic resistance profiling of different microbial species.
Results:Staphylococcus spp was the most prevalent microbe (76/125, 60.8%), followed by different Gram-negative pathogens (45.6%). ICU employees had a significant probability to have Gram-negative contamination [OR 3.627 (95% CI 1.220-10.782)], independently of gender or profession. Staphylococcus spp presence was associated with working in the internal medicine ward [OR 6.976 (95% CI 1.767-25.540)] and the surgical ward [OR 5.795 (95% CI 1.586-21.178)]. Staphylococcus spp was more prevalent in males vs. females (81.3% vs. 54.9%, p=0.008) and in medical vs. nursing personnel (76.9% vs. 54.8, p=0.019).
In the majority of Gram-negative isolates (56.1%), at least one multi-drug resistant (MDR) or extensively drug resistant (XDR) strain was isolated. A statistically significant higher prevalence of XDR Gram-negative microbes was found on the hands of nursing personnel (22.2% vs. 2.3% for medical doctors, p=0.014). Only 2 methicillin resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) out of the 12 Staphylococcus aureus positive samples were identified.
Conclusions: Employees in the ICU are more prone to Gram-negative and not to Gram-positive hand contamination. MDR and XDR pathogens are prevalent, and are associated with nursing profession.
Acinetobacter baumannii is a nosocomial pathogen of increasing importance because of its resistance to multiple antibiotics [ 1 ]. Efflux pumps of the resistance-nodulation-division superfamily play a major role in multidrug resistance by actively excreting a very wide range of antimicrobial agents. These efflux pumps are of considerable interest not only because of their role in drugresistance but also because they are targets for novel adjunct therapies [ 2 ]. Recently, research to characterize resistance-modifying efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) that block