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Most people spend the majority of their time in indoor environments where the level of harmful pollutants is often significantly higher than outdoors. Radon (222Rn) and its decay products are the example of radioactive pollutants. These radioisotopes are the main source of ionizing radiation in non-industrial buildings. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of air-conditioning system on radon and its progeny concentrations and thus on the effective dose. The measurements were carried out in the auditorium at the Environmental Engineering Faculty (Lublin University of Technology, Poland). Measurements of radon and its progeny (in attached and unattached fractions) as well as measurements of the following indoor air parameters were performed in two air-conditioning (AC) operation modes: AC ON and AC ON/OFF. The air supply rate and air recirculation were taken into consideration. The separation of radon progeny into attached and unattached fractions allowed for determining, respectively, the dose conversion factor (DCF) and the inhalation dose for teachers and students in the auditorium. A considerable increase of the mean radon progeny concentrations from 1.2 Bq/m3 to 5.0 Bq/m3 was observed in the AC ON/OFF mode compared to the AC ON mode. This also resulted in the increase of the inhalation dose from 0.005 mSv/y to 0.016 mSv/y (for 200 h/year). Furthermore, the change of the air recirculation rate from 0% to 80% resulted in a decrease of the mean radon concentration from 30 Bq/m3 to 12 Bq/m3 and the reduction of the mean radon progeny concentration from 1.4 Bq/m3 to 0.8 Bq/m3. This resulted in the reduction of the inhalation dose from 0.006 mSv/y to 0.003 mSv/y.


Background. A national survey of patient exposure from nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures was performed by Slovenian Radiation Protection Administration in order to estimate their contribution to the collective effective dose to the population of Slovenia.

Methods. A set of 36 examinations with the highest contributions to the collective effective dose was identified. Data about frequencies and average administered activities of radioisotopes used for those examinations were collected from all nuclear medicine departments in Slovenia. A collective effective dose to the population and an effective dose per capita were estimated from the collected data using dose conversion factors.

Results. The total collective effective dose to the population from nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures in 2011 was estimated to 102 manSv, giving an effective dose per capita of 0.05 mSv.

Conclusions. The comparison of results of this study with studies performed in other countries indicates that the nuclear medicine providers in Slovenia are well aware of the importance of patient protection measures and of optimisation of procedures.


Background. The aim of the study was to systematically evaluate population exposure from diagnostic and interventional radiological procedures in Slovenia.

Methods. The study was conducted in scope of the “Dose Datamed 2” project. A standard methodology based on 20 selected radiological procedures was adopted. Frequencies of the procedures were determined via questionnaires that were sent to all providers of radiological procedures while data about patient exposure per procedure were collected from existing databases. Collective effective dose to the population and effective dose per capita were estimated from the collected data (DLP for CT, MGD for mammography and DAP for other procedures) using dose conversion factors.

Results. The total collective effective dose to the population from radiological in 2011 was estimated to 1300 manSv and an effective dose per capita to 0.6 mSv of which approximately 2/3 are due to CT procedures.

Conclusions. The first systematic study of population exposure to ionising radiation from radiological procedures in Slovenia was performed. The results show that the exposure in Slovenia is under the European average. It confirmed large contributions of computed tomography and interventional procedures, identifying them as the areas that deserve special attention when it comes to justification and optimisation.

for Radiological Protection Quantities for External Radiation Exposures. Ann ICRP;2010;40(2-5):1-257. [7] Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN). Publication 103 de la CIPR. Recommandations 2007 de la Commission internationale de protection radiologique. 2009. [8] Daures J, Gouriou J, Bordy JM. Monte Carlo determination of the conversion coefficients H p (3)/K a in a right cylinder phantom with “PENELOPE” code. Comparison with “MCNP” simulations. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2011;144(1-4):37-42. [9] Hörnlund M. Estimation of dose conversion factors

, Shortt K R, et al. Wall-correction and absorbed-dose conversion factors for Fricke dosimetry: Monte Carlo calculations and measurements. Med Phys. 1993;20(2Pt1):283-292. [18] IAEA. Review of Radiation Oncology Physics: A Handbook for Teachers and Students. Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency, Educational Report Series; 2003. [19] Godden TJ. Gamma radiation from cobalt 60 teletherapy Units. Br J Radiol Suppl. 1983;17:45-49. [20] McKenzie AL. Cobalt-60 gamma-ray beams. Br J Radiol Suppl. 1996;25:46-61. [21] Grosswendt B. Dependence of the photon backscatter factor

. Zunic Z. S. 2010 The concentrations and exposure doses of radon and thoron in residences of the rural areas of Kosovo and Metohija Radiat. Meas. 45 1 118 121 10.1016/j.radmeas.2009.10.052 18. Nuccetelli, C., & Bochicchio, F. (1998). The thoron issue: monitoring activities, measuring techniques and dose conversion factors. Radiat. Prot. Dosim. , 78 (1), 59–64. 10.1093/oxfordjournals.rpd.a032334 . Nuccetelli C. Bochicchio F. 1998 The thoron issue: monitoring activities, measuring techniques and dose conversion factors Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 78 1 59 64 10

Atomic Energy Commission. 21. Clouvas, A., Xanthos, S., Antonopoulos-Domis, M., & Silva, J. (2000). Monte Carlo calculation of dose conversion factors for external exposure to photon emitters in soil. Health Phys., 78, 295-302. 22. Krstic, D., & Nikezic, D. (2010). Calculation of the effective dose from natural radioactivity in soil using MCNP code. Appl. Radiat. Isot., 68, 946-947. 23. The Agency for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and Nuclear Safety of Serbia. (2011). Report on the level of exposure of the population to ionizing radiation from the environment

is very low because only a few percent of all the electrons impinging on target produce photons in the beam, and only a few of those photons with high energies produce photoneutrons. To improve efficiency of MC simulations, i.e . particle sampling in the detector region, DXTRAN spheres were setup around all neutron detectors. Neutron spectra were collected in energy bins ranging from 1·10 -9 to 18 MeV in logarithmic scale that corresponds to energy bins for the NCRP flux to dose conversion factors. 16 Each detector had all the model cells flagged, in order to