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germination is promoted by light, and so maintaining seeds in dark conditions can help prevent premature germination for several days (e.g., Paul et al., 2012a , b ). Further, in many plants, germination is inhibited by far-red light (~740 nm) and this inhibition (dormancy) is reversed by subsequent irradiation by red light (~660 nm; e.g., Borthwick et al., 1954 ; Shinomura et al., 1994 ; Oh et al., 2004 ). The molecular machinery behind this red/far-red reversibility is well understood and aids in the practicality of using it in an approach to delay germination for
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REFERENCES Bewley J.D., Black M. 1994. Seeds. Physiology of development and germination. Plenum Press, New York, 445. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4899-1002-8. Bulard C. 1985. Intervention by gibberellin and cytokinin in the release of apple embryos from dormancy: a reappraisal. New Phytologist 101(2): 241–249. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.1985.tb02831.x. Chitnis V.R., Gao F., Yao Z., Jordan M.C., Park S., Ayele B.T. 2014. After-ripening induced transcriptional changes of hormonal genes in wheat seeds: the cases of brassinosteroids, ethylene, cytokinin and salicylic acid. PLoS
References B abashpour , M., S harivivash , R., R ahbari , A., 2011. Effect of different treatments on seed germination of honey locust (Gleditschia triacanthos). Modern Applied Science, 5: 200–204. B askin , J.M., B askin , C.C., 2004. A classification system for seed dormancy. Seed Science Research, 14 (1): 1–16. B askin , J.M., B askin , C.C., 2014. What kind of seed dormancy might palms have? Seed Science Research, 24 (1): 17–22. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0960258513000342 B ayala , J., D ianda , M., W ilson , J., O uedraogo , S.J., S anon , K., 2009
Oat seed with dormancy characteristics, which can germinate after one season or one year, are used to build and maintain vegetation to protect soils from been damaged by desertification in Northern China. The aim of this study was to estimate the effects of endogenous and exogenous GA3 and ABA on oat seed (var. Baiyan 7) germination. The results showed that seeds without peel hull had lower endogenous ABA content and the ratio of ABA/GA3 than seeds with peel hull. The best GA3 treatment duration for milky ripe, wax ripe, full ripe seeds were 60 min or 120 min, 60 min and 30 min, respectively. Seed germination rate, germination potential and germination index increased before they declined with the increasing of GA3 concentrations. The best GA3 concentration treatment was 100 mg/l, while the turning point was 200 mg/l. The dormancy rate of low temperature storage seeds were higher than those of room temperature storage seeds at each storage time, and both decreased with the increase of the storage time. For the seeds which were new or stored for 1-2 months, the germination rates were enhanced significantly by exogenous GA3. For the seeds that had been stored for over three months, GA3 treatment had no effect on germination rate. Germination rate decreased with the increase of ABA concentrations. The most inhibitive effect, which leaded to a seed germination reduction by 37.7% and 4.0%, appeared, when the concentration of ABA was 500 mg/L and 1000 mg/l, respectively. GA3 could abate the effect which ABA inhibited seed germination.
inappropriate seed technology. Furthermore, little is known about the germination requirements of S.perfoliatum L. ( Gansberger et al., 2015 ). To tap the full potential of the germination capacity, the necessary environmental conditions must be identified and the dormancy, if present, must be broken. According to Sokolov and Gritsak (1972) , Troxler and Daccord (1982) , and Vetter et al. (2010) , untreated seeds of S . perfoliatum L. show a strong dormancy, leading to an uneven and sometimes highly delayed germination. Trölenberg et al. (2012) assumed that there
References Badenes M, Garce A, Romero C, Romero M, Clave J, Rovira M, Llacer G (2003): Genetic diversity of introduced and local Spanish persimmon cultivars revealed by RAPD markers. Genet Resour Crop Ev 50: 579-585. Bellini E, Giordani E (1997a): Germoplasm conservation and evaluation of Diospyros kaki L. within the European project "minor fruit tree species conservation". Acta Hort 436: 69-76. Bellini E, Giordani E (1997b): In vitro culture establishment and shoot elongation of ‘Kaki Tipo’ ( Diospyros kaki L.) dormant buds. Acta Hort 436: 129-134. Celik A