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REFERENCES 1. Api.parliament.uk. (2019). BATTERED WIVES (Hansard, 16 July 1973). [online] Available at: https://api.parliament.uk/historic-hansard/commons/1973/jul/16/battered-wives . [Accessed 5 Nov. 2019]. 2. World report on violence and health: summary. Geneva, World Health Organization; 2002. 3. Convention A, Convention, T. (2019). Text of the Convention. [online] Istanbul Convention</br>Action against violence against women and domestic violence. Available at: https://www.coe.int/en/web/istanbul-convention/text-of-the-convention [Accessed 25 Nov. 2019]. 4

-pedagogicznego nieprzystosowania uczniów, T. 2. Kraków; Oficyna Wydawnicza „Text”: 2006. 6. Miller, A. Gdy runą mury milczenia. Warszawa; Media Rodzina: 2006. 7. Martin, S.L., Kilgallen, B., Dee, D.L., Dawson, S., Campbell, J. Women in a Prenatal Care/Substance Abuse Treatment Program: Links Between Domestic Violence and Mental Health. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 1998; 2(2): 85-94. 8. Oatley, K., Jenkins, J.M. Zrozumieć emocje. Warszawa; Wydawnic-two Naukowe PWN: 2005. 9. Jouriles, E.N., Brown, A.S., McDonald, R., Rosenfield, D., Leahy, M.M., Silver, Ch. Intimate Partner Violence and

References 1. Family Violence Prevention Fund. The National Consensus Guidelines on Identifying and Responding to Domestic Violence Victimization in Healthcare Settings. [online] 2004. [cited 2012 Jul 12]; Available from: http://www.futureswithoutviolence.org/userfiles/file/Consensus.pdf 2. World Health Organization. World Report on Violence and Health. [online] 2002. [cited 2012 Jul 18]; Available from: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/wrvh1/en 3. T.C. Baþbakanlýk Aile Araþtýrma Kurumu. Aile Içinde ve Toplumsal Alanda Þiddet

1 Introduction Domestic violence is defined as “any use of physical, sexual, psychological or economic violence of one family member against the other family member and neglect of a family member, irrespective of a person’s age, gender or any other personal circumstance of the victim or the perpetrator of violence” (1) . In Slovenia, the prevalence of intimate partner violence is estimated to be anywhere from 15% to 17% ( 2 - 4 ). Exposure to domestic violence can have many negative effects on the victim’s health (5) and leads to an increased use of health care

References Babcock, C., Green, C., & Robie, C. (2004). Does batterers’ treatment work? A meta-analytic review of domestic violence treatment. Clinical Psychology Review , 23 (8), 1023-1053. Čírtková, L. (2014) Viktimologie pro forenzní praxi. Praha: Portál. Čuhelová, K. (2016). Předběžná opatření ve věcech ochrany proti domácímu násilí. Praha: Wolters Kluwer. Kitzmann, K. M., Gaylord, N. K., Holt, A. R., & Kenny, E. D. (2003). Child witnesses to domestic violence: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71 (2), 339 – 352

References Agenţia Naţională pentru Protecţia Familiei. Statistici 2009. http://www.anpf.ro APFR. 2006. Drepturile Femeii: între UZ şi ABUZ! Monitorizarea presei şi justiţiei locale şi regionale. Raport de cercetare. Bailey, Kimberly. 2010. Lost in translation: domestic violence, "the personal is political" and the criminal justice system. The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology 100 (4): 1255-1300. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor from US Department of State. 2008. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, 2008 Human Rights Report: Romania. http

Abstract

The concept of women empowerment in the society is as vital as the empowerment of their male counterparts. Studies have shown that when people are empowered, they become strong, independent and less vulnerable or susceptible to anybody or group of persons. This study in the film medium is extremely crucial, since it will help in redirecting the minds of the society against domestic violence against the women. This is because it aids the development of the society positively. This study applies textual analysis as a methodological tool to examine how the feminine gender is represented in the popular Nigerian film industry called Nollywood. Among the video-films analyzed are: Michael Jaja’s Thanks for Coming and Gallant Babes. The study applied the purposive sampling technique to arrive at these video-films and observes that the female folks are empowered; there will be less domestic violence, since empowerment brings about freedom, realization, and power to resist and confront enemies. It discovers that domestic violence can be physical, economic, psychological, emotional, etc., thereby having serious negative consequences on the women. Some of the representations on women here revolve around some demeaning attitudes towards the women folks, subjecting them to perpetual ridicule; such as being domestic servants, mischievous prostitutes or others that at best paint a negative picture of the Nigerian woman in the society. Except women are empowered, they will continually experience domestic violence, regular abuses, etc. This research did not deny that instances abound where women are also invested with super-human virtues as in some woman-warrior films, the concern here however to advocate for women empowerment in Nollywood which lead to the eradication of domestic violence. Hence, it argues, that rather than continue to perpetuate old fashioned inhumanity on the women, filmmakers and producers should flow with the tide of presenting women in better light that express their resourcefulness to the society.

Mandatory mediation in family law issues with domestic violence – limits and experience from USA1 Lucia Valentová2 Faculty of Law, Palacký University Olomouc, Czech Republic email: lucia.valentova@upol.cz VALENTOVÁ, Lucia. Mandatory mediation in family law issues with domestic violence – limits and experience from USA International and Comparative Law Review, 2015, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 103–122. DOI: 10.1515/iclr-2016-0038. Openining remarks Mandatory mediation seems to be an oxymoron. How can a process, that is based on its alternativeness and voluntariness

Child. Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 44/25. 1989. Entry into force 2 September 1990, in accordance with article 49. Council of Europe. Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence. 2011. CETS No.: 210, pp. 1–31. Council of Europe. Convention on the protection of Children against Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse. 2007. CETS No.: 201, pp. 1–21. Council of Europe. Guidelines of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe on child-friendly justice. Council of

BIBLIOGRAPHY International, T. B. (2009). UNICEF, Retrieved 19. February 2014 iz Behind Closed Doors - The Impact of Domestic Violence on Children: http://www.unicef.org/protection/files/BehindClosedDoors.pdf Marija Savovska, Marija Galevska & Suzana Velkovska. (2008). A conduct guide for professional structures upon protection from domestic violence. Skopje: Здружение на граѓани Акција Здруженска Скопје & Здружение за еманципација, солодарност и еднаквост на жените на РМ ЕСЕ. Melissa Filippini & Evert-Jan Hoogerwerf, Susana Lucio & Ana Rodrigues, Cristina