Ângelo Brito, Paulo Roriz, Pedro Silva, Ricardo Duarte and Júlio Garganta
quantities are complemented with more sophisticated analysis, such as the one based on entropy values obtained from player’s spatial distributionmaps ( Couceiro et al., 2014 ; Silva et al., 2014a ; Silva et al., 2015 ). The entropy, originally described by Shannon (1948) , is a non-linear variable that can be used to express the uncertainty of locating the player in a specific region of the soccer pitch ( Silva et al., 2014a ). Normalized entropy ranges from 0 to 1, i.e., from highly predicted positions of the players on the pitch to highly variable or unpredicted
This paper presents lists of localities and distribution maps of Carex taxa of the section Ceratocystis in Poland. Distribution maps of individual taxa are based on the ATPOL grid, using material deposited in Polish herbaria and private collectionsas well as material collected during field research in 2007-2012. The collected data indicate that (i) in Poland C. flava s.s. is the most common species of the section Ceratocystis, whereas C. hostiana is the rarest one; (ii) most of the localities of C. demissa are situated in southern Poland, especially in Małopolska, Podkarpacie, and Silesia Provinces (iii) C. lepidocarpa is most frequent in Polesie, Lublin Upland, Małopolska, and Pomerania; no records of this species in southernmost parts of Poland have been confirmed; (iv) C. viridula var. viridula is frequent in Poland, whereas C. viridula var. pulchella is only known from 2 localities in the north; (v) the most frequent hybrid in Poland is C. ×alsatica [C. demissa × C. flava], while C. ×ruedtii [C. flava × C. lepidocarpa], C. ×subviridula [C. flava × C. viridula], and C. ×schatzii [C. lepidocarpa × C. viridula] are reported less often; the rarest hybrids are C. demissa × C. viridula, C. ×fulva [C. demissa × C. hostiana], and C. ×leutzii [C. hostiana × C. lepidocarpa].
Peter Dolinský, Fridrich Valach and Magdaléna Váczyová
Magnetic ground or repeat station surveys are performed to determine the geomagnetic field (GMF) spatial distribution, which is of great importance for scientific purposes as well as for many applications, for instance the aerial navigation. In for the information about the GMF distribution to be complete, the accuracy of the geomagnetic maps need to be known. It is a custom in the papers dealing with magnetic surveys that the precision of the instruments employed for the measurements are listed there. However, such information is not sufficient to answer the question about the quality of the geomagnetic maps because our experience shows that the spatial variations at a distance of several kilometers often exceed the precisions of the instruments. In the paper we proposed a simple method for the evaluation of the accuracy of the GMF distribution maps. We applied it to the maps which were the results of the magnetic ground survey carried out in Slovakia in the 2007.5 epoch. The method is based on the following procedure which is accomplished for each observation point of the magnetic ground survey network: A single point drops out of the data base, then the map is generated in a standard way, whereupon the observed value of the geomagnetic element for the dropped out observation point is compared with the value of the geomagnetic element which is determined from the map. Thus the image of the accuracy of the complete map can be tagged together for the surveyed territory
Agnieszka Popiela, Dorota Nalepka and Andrzej Łysko
Analysis of distribution patterns of selected ephemeral wetland species in Western Pomerania (NW Poland, NE Germany)
Phytogeographical conditions of the occurrence of 13 selected ephemeral wetland species of the Isoëto-Nanojuncetea class in Western Pomerania are analysed and discussed on the basis of distribution in Western Pomerania (maps are provided), distribution in Europe, general distribution range, taxonomic relations and palynological data. Present distribution patterns of the analysed taxa in Western Pomerania can thus be permanent not for a very long time and reflect the history of the settling of Pomerania by these species.
Agnieszka Popiela, Andrzej Łysko, Zofia Sotek and Krzysztof Ziarnek
In Western Pomerania, as in other areas of Europe, alien species play an increasingly important role. In particular, invasive plants tend to spread rapidly and in large numbers which may reduce diversity of native species, leading to the phenomenon of “trivialisation of flora”, and transform ecosystems. The list of invasive species (32 taxa) includes alien species occurring throughout Western Pomerania, and penetrating natural or semi-natural habitats. The second group consists of potentially invasive species (23 taxa), i.e. those distributed across the area under study and tending to increase the number of their localities in semi-natural and natural habitats, taxa invasive only locally, as well as species with missing data, which does not currently allow including them into the first group. Invasive weeds, as well as some epecophytes and archaeophytes occurring only on anthropogenic sites and tending to spread, were not taken into account. Among hemiagriophytes, the most common and troublesome ones are: Conyza canadensis, Erigeron annuus, Lolium multiflorum, Lupinus polyphyllus, Solidago canadensis, S. gigantea. Among holoagriophytes, i.e. the taxa which received the highest naturalisation status, very expansive species, successful in land colonisation, like Acer negundo, Bidens frondosa, B. connata, Clematis vitalba, Elodea canadensis, Epilobium ciliatum, Heracleum sosnowskyi, Impatiens glandulifera, I. parviflora, Padus serotina, Quercus rubra and Robinia pseudoacacia, should be given particular attention. Among the invasive and potentially invasive species, most taxa penetrate plant communities of the Artemisietea and Molinio-Arrhenatheretea class, followed by Querco-Fagetea, Vaccinio-Piceetea, Stellarietea mediae, Salicetea purpurae and Koelerio-Corynophoretea. The number of invasive species is twice as high when compared to the situation of these species in Poland; on the contrary, the number of species inhabiting anthropogenic, semi-natural and natural habitats is two times lower, while that of holoagriophytes and hemiagriophytes is 56.3% and 43.7%, respectively. It seems that in the case of some invasive and potentially invasive species, a decrease in the number of their locations may be observed from the west to the east (e.g. for Acer negundo, Bromus carinatus, Clematis vitalba, Helianthus tuberosus, Lycium barbarum, Reynoutria japonica, Rosa rugosa, Vicia grandiflora). Distribution patterns for some species (e.g. for Parthenocytisus inserta or Xanthium albinum) are indicative of a likely major role of the Odra River valley in the spreading of invasive species. It should be kept in mind that the area of the North-West Poland is poorly examined in terms of its flora, so the results provided in this paper are tentative. Nevertheless, the maps illustrate colonisation trends and directions and, moreover, have been so far the only attempt to synthesise this problem in NW Poland.
Agata Banaszek, Włodzimierz Chętnicki, Stanisław Fedyk, Katarzyna A. Jadwiszczak and Paweł Mirski
We present current data on the occurrence of four Soricomorpha and 15 Rodentia species. The mammals were collected during trapping of common shrews and yellow-necked mice for chromosomal research and the common hamsters for phylogeography and genetic variability research. The maps of species occurrence were created in ArcGIS and each map is accompanied by the list of localities with geographic coordinates and year of capture.
Marek Miłkowski, Jan Tatur-Dytkowski, Jerzy M. Gutowski, Rafał Ruta, Janusz Grzywocz, Szymon Konwerski, Roman Królik, Daniel Kubisz, Andrzej Lasoń, Andrzej Melke, Tomasz Olbrycht, Henryk Szołtys and Marek Wanat
Distributional data for 10 species of Peltidae, Lophocateridae, Trogossitidae and Thymalidae recorded from Poland are summarised, and numerous unpublished records are reported. Data on feeding and habitat preferences are analysed. Calitys scabra and Temnoscheila caerulea are probably extinct in Poland. Grynocharis oblonga, Nemozoma elongatum and Tenebroides mauritanicus are relatively common in Poland. Nemozoma caucasicum is currently spreading within Europe and several new records in Poland are reported. Peltis ferruginea, P. grossa, and Thymalus limbatus are restricted to natural forests in Poland, where they are sometimes abundant. We suggest adding Peltis ferruginea and Thymalus limbatus to the Polish Red List of Animals. The opinion that Grynocharis oblonga and Tenebroides mauritanicus are relicts of natural forests does not seem justified.
The Polish Carpathians and their northern foreland are a rewarding object for the kenophyte distribution research. The study, using the cartogram method, showed that the number of kenophyte species decreases with increasing altitude. Only few kenophytes were found in the lower forest zone. This regularity concerns also the species that reach higher altitudes in the mountains of their native lands. A number of species migrated into the Carpathians through rivers and streams. River valleys generate many open habitats, which are easily colonized by kenophytes due to the lack of competition. In the Carpathians, towns used to be founded in the mountain valleys and this was also a favouring factor of kenophyte propagation. The arrangement of mountain ranges in the Polish Carpathians, including their foreland, hindered the migration of some species and allowed to discover the possible migration routes into the area covered by research. Tracing these migration routes was possible only for those species that have not occupied the whole available area yet. Additionally, the study indicated the most dangerous invasive species in the Polish Carpathians and their foreland.
, H.A., 2005. Changes in vascular plant biodiversity in the Netherlands in the 20th century explained by their climatic and other environmental characteristics. Climatic Change, 72: 37-56.
Witte, JPM., Van der Meijden, R., 1995. [Distributionmaps of the botanical quality in the Netherlands from Florbase]. Verspreidingskaarten van de botanische kwaliteit in Nederland uit Florbase. Groteria, 21: 3-59.
Zając, M., Zając, A. (eds), 2001a. Distribution atlas of vascular plants in Poland. Cracow, Poland: Laboratory of Computer Chorology