Outbound logistics channels are of crucial importance for an efficient construction materials logistics management and impacts on customer satisfaction. However, there is limited knowledge of the outbound logistics channels for construction material in Nigeria. This study aims to identify and examine the current outbound logistics channels used by the Nigerian construction material manufacturing industries. A quantitative research method using a case study approach was adopted in this research. The purposive sampling technique was chosen, where six construction material manufactured and distributed within five states capital and Abuja in the North-central region of Nigeria were selected for this study. A research instrument was developed and used in conjunction with an observation protocol in the form of a template. The data were collected through observations, direct measurement onsite and archival records of transactions. A descriptive method of data analysis was employed to analyse the data. Our findings indicate that there exist six alternative outbound logistics channels that can be used separately or in combination with each other to deliver materials to end users. The study concludes that the research finding provides a potential knowledge and understanding of the manufacturers’ outbound logistics channels that can be used at the start of a project to accomplish effective planning and delivery of the whole project. The study also established the average transportation cost per average ton and average transportation cost per average distance driven for construction material delivery. This information can be used for construction material transportation management.
The purpose of the supply chain management is to ensure a competitive advantage as well as specific added value for the benefit of all supply chain links. Appropriate management practices generate many benefits, allow for savings in particular segments of the supply chain by means of cost reduction, which in turn directly leads to the competitiveness of enterprises belonging to a specific chain. The above-mentioned issues have become the subject of this thesis. Therefore, the British American Tobacco distribution network is strategically analyzed. A location and number of distribution centers will be i.a. taken into account. Reduction in the number of distribution centers will be suggested in order to reduce logistics costs in the supply chain, i.e. transport and storage. The studies were carried out based on the analysis of flows and route planning of the logistics operator for the transport of the company's products.
Over the last decade the number of studies on public transit accessibility has significantly increased. The aim of the study was to analyse the scope of application of measurements of the dynamic time accessibility in transportation systems for evaluation purposes. It was assumed that the indicator is a feasible measure for basic analysis however additional indicators are needed for reliable assessment. The study included assessing access to the global centre of Warsaw and to local and district centres in particular units. Public transit accessibility was analysed using schedule-based travel time and the population data statistic. The results of the study confirm the dynamic character of public transit time accessibility and its usefulness as a measure. Spatial and transit barriers were identified in local distribution centres and public transit operation. The work presented in the paper highlights the relevance of the in-depth evaluation of the public transit system in relation to the major congestion problems in Warsaw.
Research is based on wholesale and distribution operations of real-life case company, and in this setting, the most critical part of company’s supply chain is the inventory replenishment to warehouse (Distribution Center) as well as fulfilling and delivering customers’ orders. Different Economic Order Quantity (EOQ)-based models have been considered (Reorder Point, Reorder Point with pipeline on order inventory, and “pulse train”). Simulation system evaluates annual total logistics costs. Results show that in an environment, where local warehouse inventory levels are rather high and replenishment order quantity is rather small, it is important have frequent shipments divided in suitable intervals. In simulation model, this could be done e.g. with the use of “pulse train” function or incorporating pipeline on order inventory in order decision. The research findings are valid for a small-scale supply chain servicing small and geographically limited markets with clients assuming high customer service levels (e.g. 24-hours lead time). For bigger markets, the cross-docking based supply chain models are worth considering in simulations.
An Integrated Approach to Product Delivery Planning and Scheduling
Product delivery planning and scheduling is a task of high priority in transport logistics. In distribution centres this task is related to deliveries of various types of goods in predefined time windows. In real-life applications the problem has different stochastic performance criteria and conditions. Optimisation of schedules itself is time consuming and requires an expert knowledge. In this paper an integrated approach to product delivery planning and scheduling is proposed. It is based on a cluster analysis of demand data of stores to identify typical dynamic demand patterns and product delivery tactical plans, and simulation optimisation to find optimal parameters of transportation or vehicle schedules. Here, a cluster analysis of the demand data by using the K-means clustering algorithm and silhouette plots mean values is performed, and an NBTree-based classification model is built. In order to find an optimal grouping of stores into regions based on their geographical locations and the total demand uniformly distributed over regions, a multiobjective optimisation problem is formulated and solved with the NSGA II algorithm.
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