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Comparing two distance measures in the spatial mapping of food deserts: The case of Petržalka, Slovakia

Abstract

Over the last twenty years or so, researchers’ attention to the issue of food deserts has increased in the geographical literature. Accessibility to large-scale retail units is one of the essential and frequently-used indicators leading to the identification and mapping of food deserts. Numerous accessibility measures of various types are available for this purpose. Euclidean distance and street network distance rank among the most frequently-used approaches, although they may lead to slightly different results. The aim of this paper is to compare various approaches to the accessibility to food stores and to assess the differences in the results gained by these methods. Accessibility was measured for residential block centroids, with applications of various accessibility measures in a GIS environment. The results suggest a strong correspondence between Euclidean distance and a little more accurate street network distance approach, applied in the case of the urban environment of Bratislava-Petržalka, Slovakia.

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Intra-Community Trade Asymmetries-based Clustering and Linear Ordering of Combined Nomenclature Chapters Using Generalized Distance Measure (GDM)

Abstract

Statistical data on foreign trade are collected in all EU member states separately and then passed on to Eurostat where the data are aggregated. Continuous actions are to ensure that all datasets collected at national level are fully comparable. The aim of the paper is to provide a classification as well as an ordering of CN chapters (2-digit codes) according to the quality of data on intra-Community trade of goods. Data were taken from Eurostat’s COMEXT database. In ordering the chapters, we utilized the distance from the ideal solution with GDM as the distance measure. The study reveals a structure of goods subject to intra-Community trade that is supplementary to the official nomenclature. In addition, we provided CN chapters ordering according to the overall level of irregularities in reported mirror values of ICS and ICA. The results we obtained are of practical value for both researchers and authorities interested in foreign trade.

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Modelling Uncertainties in Multi-Criteria Decision Making using Distance Measure and TOPSIS for Hesitant Fuzzy Sets

Abstract

A notion for distance between hesitant fuzzy data is given. Using this new distance notion, we propose the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution for hesitant fuzzy sets and a new approach in modelling uncertainties. An illustrative example is constructed to show the feasibility and practicality of the new method.

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Edge Detection Method for Latent Fingerprint Images Using Intuitionistic Type-2 Fuzzy Entropy

Technique. - International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology, Vol. 29, 2011, No 1, pp. 75-82. 22. Mendel, J. M., R. I. B. John. Type-2 Fuzzy Sets Made Simple. - IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy System, Vol. 10, 2002, No 2, pp. 117-127. 23. Fan, J., W. Xie. Distance Measure and Induced Fuzzy Entropy. - Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Vol. 104, 1999, No 2, pp. 305-314. 24. Pal, N. R., S. K. Pal. Entropy: A New Definition and Its Application. - IEEE Transaction System, Man and Cybernetics, Vol. 21, 1991, No 5, pp. 1260

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A simple multi-feature based stereoscopic medical image retrieval system

Abstract

This paper describes a method of retrieving stereoscopic medical images from the database that consists of feature extraction, similarity measure, and re-ranking of retrieved images. This method retrieves similar images of the query image from the database and re-ranks them according to the disparity map. The performance is evaluated using the metrics namely average retrieval precision (APR) and average retrieval rate (ARR). According to the performance outcomes, the multi-feature based image retrieval using Mahalanobis distance measure has produced better result compared to other distance measures namely Euclidean, Minkowski, the sum of absolute difference (SAD) and the sum of squared absolute difference (SSAD). Therefore, the stereo image retrieval systems presented has high potential in biomedical image storage and retrieval systems.

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On a New Csiszar’s f-Divergence Measure

Abstract

A new parametric probabilistic measure of information and a corresponding symmetric divergence (distance) measure is proposed. The information measure is useful to study the uncertainty and the corresponding divergence measure is useful for comparing two probability distributions. The proposed parametric divergence measure belongs to the family of Csiszar’s f-divergence measures. The bounds of this divergence measures are obtained in terms of some well known divergence measures. Some properties of the proposed information and divergence measures are studied.

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Computing with words with the use of inverse RDM models of membership functions

Abstract

Computing with words is a way to artificial, human-like thinking. The paper shows some new possibilities of solving difficult problems of computing with words which are offered by relative-distance-measure RDM models of fuzzy membership functions. Such models are based on RDM interval arithmetic. The way of calculation with words was shown using a specific problem of flight delay formulated by Lotfi Zadeh. The problem seems easy at first sight, but according to the authors’ knowledge it has not been solved yet. Results produced with the achieved solution were tested. The investigations also showed that computing with words sometimes offers possibilities of achieving better problem solutions than with the human mind.

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Metric Based Attribute Reduction Method in Dynamic Decision Tables

Abstract

Feature selection is a vital problem which needs to be effectively solved in knowledge discovery in databases and pattern recognition due to two basic reasons: minimizing costs and accurately classifying data. Feature selection using rough set theory is also called attribute reduction. It has attracted a lot of attention from researchers and numerous potential results have been gained. However, most of them are applied on static data and attribute reduction in dynamic databases is still in its early stages. This paper focuses on developing incremental methods and algorithms to derive reducts, employing a distance measure when decision systems vary in condition attribute set. We also conduct experiments on UCI data sets and the experimental results show that the proposed algorithms are better in terms of time consumption and reducts’ cardinality in comparison with non-incremental heuristic algorithm and the incremental approach using information entropy proposed by authors in [17].

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Iterative methods for efficient sampling-based optimal motion planning of nonlinear systems

Abstract

This paper extends the RRT* algorithm, a recently developed but widely used sampling based optimal motion planner, in order to effectively handle nonlinear kinodynamic constraints. Nonlinearity in kinodynamic differential constraints often leads to difficulties in choosing an appropriate distance metric and in computing optimized trajectory segments in tree construction. To tackle these two difficulties, this work adopts the affine quadratic regulator-based pseudo-metric as the distance measure and utilizes iterative two-point boundary value problem solvers to compute the optimized segments. The proposed extension then preserves the inherent asymptotic optimality of the RRT* framework, while efficiently handling a variety of kinodynamic constraints. Three numerical case studies validate the applicability of the proposed method.

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Textural diversity in selected Retisols in the catena of the Opalenica Plain (western Poland)

Abstract

The investigation was carried out in the catena of Retisols within the Opalenica Plain. The aim of the study was to characterize the variation in texture of selected Retisols formed from ground moraine glacial till of Leszno Phase of Vistulian glaciation. The analyzed soils are characterized by a similar degree of soil material segregation, which is characteristic for the typical glacial till. Particle size distribution and granulometric indices lead to conclusion that soils located in the catena on summit and shoulder positions, have vertical texture distribution formed primarily by lessivage process. Sandy texture of eluvial horizons noted in the Retisol of the slope pediment can be a consequence of not only lessivage but also of slope forming processes that led to the appearance of lithic discontinuity. The cluster analysis using Ward’s method and 1-rPearson as the distance measure can be helpful for identification the lithogenic uniformity and/or non-uniformity of soil parent material.

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