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R eferences 1. Casadaban LC, Parvinian A, Couture PM et al . Investigation of epidemiology and etiology of liver diseases and characterization of its association with various factors. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 8: 346-349, 2015. 2. World Health Organization . Hepatitis C. Available at: . Last accessed: February 2016. 3. World Health Organization . Viral Hepatitis requires more attention in the WHO European region. Available at:

REFERENCES 1. Santiago JA, Bottero V, Potashkin JA. Biological and Clinical Implications of Comorbidities in Parkinson’s Disease. Front Aging Neurosci , 2017 2. Todorova A, Jenner P, Chaudhuri KJ. Non-motor Parkinson’s: integral to motor Parkinson’s, yet often neglected. Practical Neurology 14(5): 310–322, 2014 3. Geng X, Lou H, Wang J et al. α-Synuclein binds the K(ATP) channel at insulin-secretory granules and inhibits insulin secretion. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 300: 276–286, 2011. 4. Vidal-Martinez G, Yang B, Medrano J, Perez RG. Could α

1 Introduction Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is an emerging autoimmune disorder entity, which was first proposed in 2011. 1 Before that, various names were used to describe this syndrome.1 IgG4-RD can affect almost every organ including pancreas, lymph node, thyroid gland and so on. 1 Pulmonary involvement is considered uncommon in this systemic illness, yet they have been increasingly reported over the past few years. 2 , 3 In daily practice, it is common to encounter patients with fever, cough and radiological lung shadows. 2 , 3 Differential

References 1. Brunson J-G, Gall EA . Concepts of Disease. A Textbook of Human Pathology . The Macmillan Co., New York, 1971. 2. Mikkelsen OA. The prevalence of Dupuytren’s contracture in Norway. A study in a representative population sample of the municipality of Haugesund. Acta Chir Scand 138: 695-700, 1972. 3. Burrows NP, Lovel CR. Disorders of Connective Tissue. In: Rook’s Textbook of Dermatology. 8th Edition. Burns T, Breathnach S, Cox N, Griffiths C (Eds), Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, Vol.3, pp 45.45, 2010. 4. Hueston JT. Dupuytren diathesis. In

References Coresh J, Selvin E, Stevens LA, et al. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in the United States. JAMA 298(17): 2038-2047, 2007. Wen CP, Cheng TY, Tsai MK, et al. All-cause mortality attributable to chronic kidney disease: a prospective cohort study based on 462.293 adults in Taiwan. Lancet 371(9631): 2173-2182, 2008. Go AS, Chertow GM, Fan D, et al. Chronic kidney disease and the risks of death, cardiovascular events, and hospitalization. N Engl J Med 351: 1296-1305, 2004. Foley RN, Parfey PS, Sarnak MJ. Clinical epidemiology of

1 Introduction Still’s disease, first described by G. Still in children in 1896, is an inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology characterized by arthritis, rash, and fever [ 1 ]. An adult-onset form of the disease, adult-onset Still’s disease (AOSD), was subsequently reported by E. Bywaters in 1971 [ 2 ]. The estimated prevalence of AOSD varies from 0.16 cases per 100,000 in France to 3.7 cases per 100,000 in Japan [ 3 , 4 ]. There is no specific diagnostic test for AOSD. It is most commonly diagnosed by using the Yamaguchi criteria (see Table 1 ), after

References 1. Klein I, Ojamaa K. Mechanism of disease: thyroid hormone and the cardiovascular system. N Engl J Med 344: 501-509, 2001. 2. Ramirez G, O'Neill W, Jubiz W, Bloomer HA. Thyroid dysfunction in uremia: evidence for thyroid and hypophyseal abnormalities. Ann Intern Med 84: 672-676, 1996. 3. Mariani LH, Berns JS. The renal manifestations of thyroid disease, J Am Soc Nephrol 23: 22-26, 2012. 4. Kaptein EM. Thyroid hormone metabolism and thyroid diseases in chronic renal failure. Endocr Rev 17: 45-63, 1996. 5. Singh PA, Bobby Z, Selvaraj N, Vinayagamoorthi

References 1. National Kidney Foundation. K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease: evaluation, classification, and stratification. Am J Kidney Dis 39(2 Suppl. 1): S1-S266, 2002. 2. *** KDIGO 2012 Guideline for Evaluation and Management of CKD. Kidney Int Suppl 3: 19-62, 2013. Available at 3. Groop PH, Thomas MC, Moran JL et al. The presence and severity of chronic kidney disease predicts all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes. 2009;58:1651-1658. 4. Go AS, Chertow GM, Fan D, McCulloch CE

R eferences 1. Gressner OA, Gao C. Monitoring fibrogenic progression in the liver. Clin Chim Acta 433: 111–122, 2014. 2. Crespo M, Lappe S, Feldstein AE, Alkhouri N. Similarities and differences between pediatric and adult nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Metabolism 65: 1161-1171, 2016. 3. Loomba R, Sanyal AJ. The global NAFLD epidemic. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 10: 686–90, 2013. 4. Malhotra N, Beaton MD. Management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in 2015. World J Hepatol 7: 2962-2967, 2015. 5. Satapathy SK., Sanyal AJ. Novel treatment

R eferences 1. American Diabetes Association Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes - 2017. Diabetes Care 40[Suppl. 1]: S1-S135 2. Haffner SM, Lehto S, Ronnemaa T, Pyorala K, Laakso M . Mortality from coronary heart disease in subjects with type 2 diabetes and in nondiabetic subjects with and without prior myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 339: 229-234, 1998. 3. NIH/NIDDK. Genetic basis of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, obesity, and their complications. Advances and emerging opportunities in diabetes research: a Strategic Planning report of the DMICC. 2011