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Resultative and goal phrases in Polish and English: Interaction with aspect

Abstract

The article examines the interaction of resultative and goal phrases with aspect in Polish and English. The first research problem concerns the ability of resultative and goal phrases to aspectually delimit (telicize) an atelic predicate. Data from English shows that resultative and goal phrases systematically make an atelic predicate telic in non-progressive sentences, but they fail to do so in progressive constructions. In Polish, imperfective (atelic) constructions can never be aspectually delimited by such phrases. It is argued that resultative and goal phrases lose their telicizing potential when in the scope of an aspectual functional head Asp specified as [-telic]. This is the case in English progressive and Polish imperfective sentences. The Asp head is able to override the telicity specification established compositionally within VP. The Asp head in Polish is obligatory and the value of its telicity feature ([+telic] for perfective and [-telic] for imperfective) is responsible for the interpretation of the VP selected by Asp as a complement. In English such projection is optional. When it is absent, the telicity of a predicate can be computed from the default aspectual type of the lexical verb combined with other elements inside VP, including resultative and goal phrases. A related problem also addressed in the article concerns the meaning of progressive / imperfective resultative and goal constructions. The problem is presented as part of a larger task of finding a proper analysis for accomplishment predicates combined with a progressive / imperfective operator. The proposed solution is based on the notion of directionality. It is suggested that resultative and goal constructions denote a process of some entity changing in the ‘direction’ of a new state. When the process is understood as having a culmination, the ‘direction’ of the transition indicates a new state actually holding of the entity undergoing transition. When a progressive / imperfective operator is introduced, it can remove the culmination leaving just the directed-transition process. A formalization of this analysis is provided.

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Synthesis, surface tension, optical and dielectric properties of bismuth oxide thin film

), thickness of the film and surface morphology of the nanocrystalline Bi 2 O 2.75 thin film were investigated. The optical band gap (E g ) for direct transitions, optical transmission (T %), reflectivity (R %), absorption coefficient, refractive index (n r ), extinction coefficient (k), dielectric constant (∊) of the thin films were investigated. According to the results, the low rate of reaction, temperature and the structure of substrate affected structural and optical properties of the film. Additionally, the surface tension of Bi 2 O 2.75 thin film was studied for the

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Structural and optical properties of SnO2–Al2O3 nanocomposite synthesized via sol-gel route

Abstract

A nanocomposite of 0.5SnO2–0.5Al2O3 has been synthesized using a sol-gel route. Structural and optical properties of the nanocomposite have been discussed in detail. Powder X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction spectroscopy confirm the phase purity and the particle size of the 0.5SnO2–0.5Al2O3 nanocomposite (13 to 15 nm). The scanning electron microscopy also confirms the porosity in the sample, useful in sensing applications. The FT-IR analysis confirms the presence of physical interaction between SnO2 and Al2O3 due to the slight shifting and broadening of characteristic bands. The UV-Vis analysis confirms the semiconducting nature because of direct transition of electrons into the 0.5SnO2–0.5Al2O3 nanocomposites.

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Geometric Non-Linear Approach to Stiffness State of Semi–Rigid Structures

Abstract

Present contribution intends to emphasize the contribution of geometric non-linearity to the stiffness state of semi-rigid multi–storey steel structures. Though semi-rigidity of beam – column connections involves a nonlinearity at constitutive bending momentrelative rotation level, the geometric nonlinearity associated to deformed conFigure uration at element level is less referred to. The main objective of the study is to express the stiffness state of geometric non-linear elements semi-rigidly connected at its ends. Stiffness state is, in its term, expressed by element level stiffness matrix considering the six degrees of freedom of the planar element. Regarding the reference system, both local and global systems are employed allowing a simple and direct transition from element level vectorial relations to their structural level forms. The three fundamental vectorial relations (static equilibrium, kinematic compatibility, material constitutivity) emphasize that the principle of virtual work holds in the case of semi-rigidly connected skeletal structures as well.

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Green synthesis and spectral analysis of surface encapsulated copper (II) oxide nanostructures

Abstract

Nanostructures of copper (II) oxide were synthesized through chemical reduction of copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate using phytochemicals present in leaf extracts of Leucas aspera. The crystalline phases and size were assessed by X-ray diffraction data analysis. From the Bragg reflection peaks, existence of monoclinic end-centered phase of copper (II) oxide along with presence of cubic primitive phase of copper (I) oxide and traces of cubic face centered lattices of zero valent copper was revealed. The three Raman active modes corresponding to CuO phase were identified in the sample with permissible merging of characteristic bands due to nanostructuring and organic capping. The surface topography measurement using field emission scanning electron microscope evidenced the occurrence of cylindrical rod shaped morphological structures along with a number of unshaped aggregates in the sample. The effective crystallite size and lattice strain were estimated from Williamson-Hall analysis of Bragg reflection data. Tauc plot analysis of UV-Vis-NIR absorption data in direct transition mode provided an estimation of band gap, viz. 1.83 eV and 2.06 eV respectively, for copper (II) oxide and copper (I) oxide. Thermal degradation study using thermogravimetric curve analysis could reveal the amount of moisture content, volatile components as well as the polymer capping over nanorods present in the sample. It could be seen that upon heating, inorganic core crystals undergo oxidation process and at temperature above 464 °C, the sample was found to be composed solely of inorganic crystallite phase of copper (II) oxide.

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Effect of thermal annealing on structural and optical properties of In doped Ge-Se-Te chalcogenide thin films

Abstract

Thin films of Ge10–xSe60Te30Inx (x = 0, 2, 4 and 6) were developed by thermal evaporation technique. The annealing effect on the structural properties of Ge10–xSe60Te30Inx (x = 0, 2, 4 and 6) films has been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD results indicate amorphous nature of the as-prepared films whereas crystalline phases in annealed films were identified. Structural parameters such as average crystallite size, strain, and dislocation were determined for different annealing temperatures. Effect of annealing on optical constants of prepared films has been explored using UV-Vis spectrophotometer in the wavelength range of 400 nm to 1000 nm. Various optical constants were determined depending on annealing temperature. It has been noticed that the film transparency and optical bandgap Eg have been reduced whereas the absorption coefficient α and extinction coefficient k increased with increasing annealing temperature. It was found that the prepared samples obey the allowed direct transition. The reduction in optical bandgap with annealing temperature has been described by Mott and Davis model. Due to annealing dependence of the optical parameters, the investigated material could be utilized for phase change memory devices.

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Influence of annealing temperature on the structural and optical properties of As30Te70 thin films

Abstract

Chalcogenide glasses have attracted much attention largely due to their interesting physical and chemical properties. Though few published articles exist on the As-Te system, little is known about the optical properties of eutectic or near eutectic composition of As-Te system upon heat treatment. Therefore, this paper reports the effects of annealing temperature on the structural and optical parameters of As30Te70 thin films. The bulk and thin films of 150 nm thick As30Te70 chalcogenide glasses were prepared by melt-quenching and thermal evaporation techniques, respectively. The glass transition and crystallization reactions of the bulk samples were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The influence of annealing temperature on the transformation of the crystal structure was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), while the surface morphology of the annealed samples was examined using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The optical band gap, refractive index and extinction coefficient were also calculated. The DSC scans showed that the melting temperature remains constant at 636.56 K. In addition, other characteristic temperatures such as the glass transition temperature, the onset crystallization temperature, and the crystallization peak temperature increase with increasing the heating rate. The crystalline phases for the as-prepared and annealed films consist of orthorhombic As, hexagonal Te, and monoclinic As2Te3 phases. Furthermore, the average crystallite size, strain, and dislocation density depend on the annealing temperature. The optical absorption results revealed that the investigated films have a direct transition, and their optical energy gap decreases from 1.82 eV to 1.49 eV as the annealing temperature increases up to 433 K. However, the refractive index, extinction coefficient, dielectric constant and the ratio of free carrier concentration to its effective mass, increase with increasing the annealing temperature.

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Comparison of Knowledge and Attitudes Towards the Use of Scientific Research in Clinical Practice Among Departmental and Charge Nurses

Evid Based Nurs. 2011;8(4):236-46. 15. Bradway C, Trotta R, Bixby MB, et al. A qualitative analysis of an advanced practice nurse-directed transitional care model intervention. Ger-ontol. 2012;52(3):394-407. 16. Rutledge DN, Skelton K. Clinical expert facilitators of evidence-based practice: a community hospital program. JNSD. 2011;27(5):231-5. 17. Lauver L, Phalen AG. An example of a statistics course in a doctor of nursing practice (DNP) program. Nurs Educ. 2012;37(1):36-41. 18. Gerrish K, Nolan M, McDonnell A, Tod A. Factors influencing advanced practice

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Fabrication of Si nanopowder and application to hydrogen generation and photoluminescent material

Silicon Nanoparticles”, Direct Transition and Interface Recombination , J.Phys Chem.C 115, (2011) 21056-21062. [4] L. Mangolini, “Synthesis, Properties, and Applicaion of Silicon Nanocrystals”, J.Vac.Sci.Technol. B31 (2013) 020801-1-29. [5] O. Gusev, A. N. Poddubny, A. A. Prokofiev and I. N. Yassievich, “Light Emission from Silicon Nanocrystals”, Semiconductors 47 (2013) 183-202. [6] W. T. Leach, J.-H. Zhu and J. G. Ekerdt, “Thermal Desorption Effects Chemical Vapor Deposition of Silicon Nanoparticles”, J.Crystal Growth 243 (2002) 30

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What is a nurse-led service? A discussion paper

References 1. Berntorp E, Hart D, Mancuso ME, d'Oiron R, Perry D, O'Mahony B, Kaczmarek R, Crato M, Pasi J, Miners A, Carlsson KS, Kitchen S, Boehlen F, Giangrande P, Cebura E, Uitslager N, Osooli M, Janeckova D, Haldon R, Rivolta GF. The first Team Haemophilia Education meeting, 2015, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Eur J Haematol 2016;97 Suppl 83:3-18. doi: 10.1111/ejh.12760 2. Bradway C, Trotta R, Bixby MB et al. A qualitative analysis of an advanced practice nurse-directed transitional care model intervention. Gerontologist

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