solvent. Materials Letters. 2005; 59: 2461-4.  wikipedia. Chemical Solution Deposition. 2013.  Arfsten NJ, Eberle A, Otto J and Reich A. Investigations on the angle-dependent dipcoating technique (ADDC) for the production of optical filters. Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology. 1997; 8: 1099-104.  Van Genabet B. Synthesis and characterisation of copper, polyimide and TIPS-pentacene layers in the development of a solution processed fibrous transistor. Department of Textiles. Gent: Universiteit Gent, 2010.  Yong-Hoon K, Lee YU, Jeong-In H, Han SM
Indium tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited on glass substrates by dip-coating and thermal pyrolysis methods. Sn (IV) is often used in the spray method as a precursor salt, but in this research we have employed a new procedure that uses Sn (II) and In(NO3)3 for preparation of transparent conductive thin films. Then, colloidal Ag was deposited on the ITO layers in order to compare the two synthesis methods, and the structural and electrical properties of the resultant films were investigated by FESEM, XRD, and four-terminal resistometry. The obtained films are polycrystalline with a preferred orientation of (200). The XRD patterns of the films indicate that in both films, the Sn phase is crystallized separately from In2O3. The presence of a Sn peak and the overall low intensity of XRD peaks suggest relative crystallization of ITO structure. For this reason, Ag films were deposited by dip coating method using a colloidal sol. By analyzing the XRD patterns of Ag-ITO films after eliminating the Sn peak, the increased intensity of the peaks confirmed the relatively good crystallization of the ITO films. The results show that the films with a sheet resistance as low as 2 × 10−2 Ω·cm, which is beneficial for solar cells, were achieved.
Heavily In doped zinc oxide (IZO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates by dip-coating method with different concentrations of indium. The effect of heavy In doping on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of ZnO was discussed on the basis of XRD, AFM, UV-Vis spectra and Hall effect measurements. The diffraction patterns of all deposited films were indexed to the ZnO wurtzite structure. However, high In doping damaged the films crystallinity. The highest optical transmittance observed in the visible region (>93 %) exceeded that of ITO: the absolute rival of the most commercial TCOs. The grain size significantly decreased from 140 nm for undoped ZnO to 17.1 nm for IZO with the greatest In ratio. The roughness decreased with increasing In atomic ratio, indicating an improvement in the surface quality. Among all synthesized films, the sample obtained with 11 at.% indium showed the best TCO properties: the highest transmittance (93.5 %) and the lowest resistivity (0.41 Ωcm) with a carrier concentration of 2.4 × 1017 cm−3. These results could be a promising solution for possible photonic and optoelectronic applications.
-173.  PROETex, D8.1 Report on fibre design for different electronic functions (transistors, sensors), 2007.  Bormashenko, E., et al., Mesoscopic and submicroscopic patterning in thin polymer films: Impact of the solvent. Materials Letters, 2005. 59(19-20): p. 2461-2464.  Arfsten, N. J., et al., Investigations on the angle-dependent dipcoating technique (ADDC) for the production of optical filters. Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, 1997. 8(1-3): p. 1099-1104.  Kim, J. H., et al., Phase behavior and mechanism of membrane formation for polyimide
ZnO-CuO flower-like hetero-nanostructures were successfully prepared by combining hydrothermal and dip coating methods. Flower-like hetero-nanostructures of ZnO-CuO were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and UV-Vis. The sensing properties of ZnO-CuO flower-like hetero-nanostructures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were evaluated in a chamber containing acetone or isopropanol gas at room temperature. The sensitivity of ZnO-CuO flower-like hetero-nanostructures to VOCs was enhanced compared to that of pure leafage-like ZnO nanostructures. Response and recovery times were about 5 s and 6 s to 50 ppm acetone, and 10 s and 8 s to 50 ppm isopropanol, respectively. The sensing performance of ZnO-CuO flower-like hetero-nanostructures was attributed to the addition of CuO that led to formation of p-n junctions at the interface between the CuO and ZnO. In addition, the sensing mechanism was briefly discussed.
ZnO thin films were deposited on a glass substrate by dip coating technique using a solution of zinc acetate, ethanol and distilled water. Optical constants, such as refractive index n and extinction coefficient k. were determined from transmittance spectrum in the ultraviolet-visible-near infrared (UV-Vis-NIR) regions using envelope methods. The films were found to exhibit high transmittance, low absorbance and low reflectance in the visible regions. Absorption coefficient α and the thickness of the film t were calculated from interference of transmittance spectra. The direct optical band gap of the films was in the range of 3.98 to 3.54 eV and the thickness of the films was evaluated in the range of 173 to 323 nm, while the refractive index slightly varied in the range of 1.515 to 1.622 with an increase in withdrawal speed from 100 to 250 mm/s. The crystallographic structure of the films was analyzed with X-ray diffractometer. The films were amorphous in nature.
Influence of the coating process parameters on the quality of PUR/PVP hydrogel coatings for PVC medical devices
To decrease friction factor and enhance the biocompatibility of medical devices manufactured from poly(vinyl chloride), PVC, the surface modification with wear resistant polyurethane/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PUR/PVP) hydrogel coating can be applied. In the present work substrates were dip-coated with PVP and PUR solutions and thermally cured. The variable process parameters were: solvent system; concentration of polymers (1, 2 or 3% w/v); coating baths temperature (22, 38 and 55°C); drying temperature (32, 50 and 67°C); length of break between process steps (5, 30 and 90 s); and solutions storage time (up to 72 hrs). The quality of coatings was determined by friction coefficients against porcine aorta, weights of the deposited layer and the swelling capacity. The solvent system and polymers concentration were crucial factors. The increased temperature of coating solutions caused increased deposition but decreased durability. The most lubricious samples were dried in 50°C. Coatings from the solutions prepared 24h prior to use had better properties than those from fresh solutions.
The mono and bi-layer TiO2 thin films have been prepared by sol-gel method on glass. X-Ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry and m-lines spectroscopy techniques have been used to characterize the TiO2 films. The mono-layer film is found to be amorphous, while the bi-layer film shows the presence of anatase phase. The bi-layer film exhibits more homogeneous surface with less roughness. The thickness effect on the refractive index, extinction ceofficient, packing density and optical band gap is analysed. The waveguiding measurements of the bi-layer film exhibit single-guided TE0 and TM0 polarized modes from which we can measure the refractive index and the film thickness.
In this work, TiO2 and TiO2-SiO2 thin films on glass substrates were prepared by the sol-gel dip coating process. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to evaluate the structural and chemical properties of the films. The super-hydrophilicity was assessed by water contact angle measurement. XRD measurements confirmed the presence of polycrystalline anatase and rutile phases in the films. The water contact angle measurements showed that addition of SiO2 has a significant effect on the super-hydrophilicity of TiO2 thin films, especially if they are stored in a dark place.
In this study, an attempt was made to deliver pantoprazole in a sustained manner using delayed release tablets. The tablets were prepared by the wet granulation method using HPMC, cassava starch and polyvinyl pyrrolidine as polymers, Avicel PH 102 (MCC) as filler and potato starch as binder. The prepared tablets were evaluated for hardness, mass variation, friability and drug content uniformity, and the results were found to comply with official standards. The prepared tablets were coated using an enteric coating polymer such as cellulose acetate phthalate, Eudragit L100 and drug coat L100 by the dip coating method. The in vitro release was studied using pH 1.2 acidic buffer and pH 6.8 phosphate buffer and the study revealed that the prepared tablets were able to sustain drug release into the intestine. The anti-ulcer activity was evaluated by a water immersion stress induced ulcer model. The enteric coated pantoprazole tablets significantly reduced ulcer formation.