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administrative agencies dealing with public data but also research institutes and general companies will think about how they use the data they own and what value they should be given. This study attempts to propose a conceptual model that emphasizes semantic enrichment in a digital curation model. It is the extraction of the most important elements from the description and expression of the resource. An abstract model focuses on redesigning the digital curation model to highlight activities that focus on user services, adding value to the core value of digital objects, and


I reply to seven commentaries on “The Virtual and the Real”. In response to Claus Beisbart, Jesper Juul, Peter Ludlow, and Neil McDonnell and Nathan Wildman, I clarify and develop my view that virtual are digital objects, with special attention to the nature of digital objects and data structures. In response to Alyssa Ney and Eric Schwitzgebel, I clarify and defend my spatial functionalism, with special attention to the connections between space and consciousness. In response to Marc Silcox, I clarify and develop my view of the value of virtual worlds, with special attention to the case where we experience these worlds as virtual.


In June 2016, David Chalmers delivered the Petrus Hispanus Lectures at the LanCog research group, University of Lisbon, on the subject of objects, properties, and perception in virtual reality environments. The paper resulting from these lectures was subsequently published in Disputatio as “The Virtual and the Real” (vol. IX, 2017, No. 46, pp. 309–52). In it, Chalmers defends virtual realism, according to which virtual objects are bona fide digital objects with virtual counterparts of perceptible properties such as colour and shape, and perception in virtual reality environments is typically veridical rather than illusory. This special issue collects responses to Chalmers due to Claus Beisbart, Jesper Juul, Peter Ludlow, Neil McDonnell and Nathan Wildman, Alyssa Ney, Eric Schwitzgebel, and Marc Silcox; together with a detailed response by Chalmers to each paper.

You can read the target article (Chalmers 2017, “The Virtual and the Real”) under discussion in this Special Issue here:

29 NOSTALGIA FOR A DIGITAL OBJECT PLENARY SESSION II Digital Aestethics Nostalgia for a Digital Object* Regrets on the Quickening of QuickTime VIVIAN SOBCHACK Whenever I watch QuickTime “movies”, I find myself drawn into someone else’s – and my computer’s – memory. Faced with their strange collections, moving collages, and juxtapositions of image-objects whose half-life I can barely re-member, I tend to drift into a reverie not quite my own. Indeed, the form usually evokes from me the kind of tem- poral nostalgia and spatial intensity I feel not at the movies but

formats. An extractable document should have the following characteristics: Be composed of digital objects of various media types, representing primary materials, processed results, and even processing modules to produce desired results; Be structured and semantically tagged; Be executable at various levels down to the level of each object; and Contain modules for processing and presentation, so the various objects of the paper can be custom-organized to meet different needs. An electronic thesis or dissertation (ETD) tool was recently designed as a data carrier and

such Web and social media monitoring. Many tools can be used to track down, store and comprehensively evaluate digital objects, things like how “buzz” develops and how “sentiments” are determined. This information can be used to develop a general evaluation of certain products or a schedule for releasing marketing material on these products. At the same time, the relevance of individual digital objects (e.g., tweets, blog posts and YouTube videos) and actors (e.g., individuals, media and organizations) frequently remains just as much of a mystery as the high

different sources, integrating data with base maps and other resources for social, economic, environmental, and health care data, publishing the standard data products on the Harvard Dataverse with unique and permanent Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) for those data collections and datasets deposited on Dataverse. This article also presents some preliminary studies on the transmission patterns of the COVID-19 pandemic. 2 Overview of Related Work 2.1 Open Data Resources The open data resources related to COVID-19 studies that the focus of this article can be classified


I argue that virtual reality is a sort of genuine reality. In particular, I argue for virtual digitalism, on which virtual objects are real digital objects, and against virtual fictionalism, on which virtual objects are fictional objects. I also argue that perception in virtual reality need not be illusory, and that life in virtual worlds can have roughly the same sort of value as life in non-virtual worlds.


What is the status of a cat in a virtual reality environment? Is it a real object? Or part of a fiction? Virtual realism, as defended by D. J. Chalmers, takes it to be a virtual object that really exists, that has properties and is involved in real events. His preferred specification of virtual realism identifies the cat with a digital object. The project of this paper is to use a comparison between virtual reality environments and scientific computer simulations to critically engage with Chalmers’s position. I first argue that, if it is sound, his virtual realism should also be applied to objects that figure in scientific computer simulations, e.g. to simulated galaxies. This leads to a slippery slope because it implies an unreasonable proliferation of digital objects. A philosophical analysis of scientific computer simulations suggests an alternative picture: The cat and the galaxies are parts of fictional models for which the computer provides model descriptions. This result motivates a deeper analysis of the way in which Chalmers builds up his realism. I argue that he buys realism too cheap. For instance, he does not really specify what virtual objects are supposed to be. As a result, rhetoric aside, his virtual realism isn’t far from a sort of fictionalism.


This article intends to demonstrate the importance of the existence of an aggregating platform for digital content, as is the case of MUVITUR – Virtual Museum of Tourism, for the research in tourism and also to assess its potential.

Aiming to track the history of Madeira’s destination image, this paper also searches to contribute to the study of the ‘Atlantic Pearl’ distinctive features for promotional purposes throughout seventy years.

For this purpose, the authors did an integrated search aiming to find and study the retrieved results of promotional visual materials edited during the twentieth century, focusing on Madeira Island, as an example of the potentialities of the Muvitur database.

With this research, we can conclude that tourism marketing strategies seem to have succeeded to consolidate Madeira’s destination image focused on its distinctiveness. Digital objects gathered in such searchable thematic databases, with a diversity of content providers, can play a crucial role in the history of tourism and leisure, allowing us, at the same time, to know how Madeira represented the destination for promotional aims.