. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994. Georgopoulou, Xenia. Gender Issues in Shakespeare’s Theatre and the Renaissance. Athens: Papazisis, 2010. Habgood, Matthew Peter Jacob. “The Effective Integration of DigitalGames and Learning Content” Diss. University of Nottingham, 2007. Heliö, Satu. “Role-Playing: A Narrative Experience and a Mindset” Beyond Role and Play: Tools, Toys and Theory for Harnessing the Imagination. Eds. Markus Montola and Jaakko Stenros. Helsinki Ropecon Ry 2004. 65-74. Holderness, Graham. Visual Shakespeare: Essays in Film and Television
Since Julia Kristeva’s first use of the term in the late 20th century, intertextuality has given rise to one of the literary theories most frequently applied in the interpretation of texts across different media, from literature to art and film. In what concerns the study of digital games, however, the concept has received little attention, in spite of the fact that the new medium offers a more than fertile ground for its investigation. The aim of the present essay, therefore, is to propose that digital games can be and, indeed, are intertextual in at least two ways. First, we argue, games deliberately refer to other games, which may or may not be a part of the same series. Secondly, they connect with texts from other media and specifically with literary texts. In both cases, the intertextual link can be a sign of tribute, a critical comment, or a means of self-reflection. Ultimately, however, these links are a form of aesthetic play that reveals new similarities between digital games and traditional media for artistic expression.
://www.gamasutra.com/gdc2004/features/20040324/gee_01.shtml Internet Advertising Bureau (2007)’In-game Advertising: The UK Market’. Cited 22.8.2007. www.iabuk.net/media/images/IABingameadvertisingtheUKMarketMarch2007_1594.pdf Johnson, D. & Wiles, J. (2003) ‘Effective Affective User Interface Design in Games’. Ergonomics 46: 13/14, 1332-1345. Juhl, J.K. (2006) ‘The Effectiveness of Product Placement in DigitalGames’. Unpublished dissertation. University of Bath. Järvinen, A. (2008) ‘Games without Frontiers. Theories and Methods for GameStudies and Design’. Cited 25.5.2011. http
Introduction Some media forms we primarily take in with our senses, like movies, music or text. Other media forms are more like activities that we have to carry out with our hands such as digitalgames on the PC, console, smart phone or tablet. Some of these activities are highly interactive, that is, they require us to constantly express ourselves in actions with input-devices. Here, we are not allowed to sit still and take media in with our senses. It is important that we see such new forms of media and new forms of media activities as something other than mere
Game-based learning (GBL) is an emerging field reaching new contexts. Research has reported about students’ rich use of digital games and the learning potential of GBL in traditional school subjects. Digital games have been tested as educational tools in various subjects in Swedish schools during the last decade, in areas such as teaching and learning of history and foreign languages. However, there is a lack of detailed research on attitudes toward the use of GBL in history education.
Main aim of the study was to examine and discuss attitudes toward an increased use of digital games in formal history education. Earlier studies have analysed students’ opinions and preferences, but this study has a focus on the teacher perspective and on which design factors are important if digital games should be an alternative for self-learning in history education. The research approach has been qualitative cross-sectional study where secondary school teachers have answered questionnaires with open-ended questions on their view of didactics and the use of GBL in formal education. All selected respondents are registered as professional secondary school history teachers. Furthermore, teachers have described their own gaming habits and their game design preferences.
Findings show that a majority of the informants have good knowledge about digital games with historical setting and also a positive attitude toward an increased use of GBL. Secondary school teachers also have a tradition of using various media in their teaching and learning activities and there are neither any regulations against an increased use of digital games. An important aspect of history education, where digital games might not the first choice, is in the description of the main changes and influence of a historical époque. Authors’ recommendation is to use games that can enable tangential learning where the gaming sessions could be seen as appetisers for further and deeper learning.
are appropriate for our
The advancement of computer science plays a vital role in the modern so-
ciety, with a possible positive impact in the quality of life of diverse groups of peo-
ple, including children with disabilities. Nowadays, there is a significant number of
digitalgames designed specifically to meet special needs of children. In addition, a
large percentage of all the available digitalgames is designed to be also accessible
to people with various types of impairments.
If the ocean of digital
This paper examines whether certain computer games, most notably RPGs, can be thought of as examples of the postmodern epic. Drawing on more recent critical frameworks of the epic, such as the ones proposed by Northrop Frye, Adeline Johns-Putra, Catherine Bates or John Miles Foley, the demonstration disembeds the most significant diachronic features of the epic from its two main media of reproduction, that of text and oral transmission, in order to test their fusion with the virtual environment of digital games. More specifically, I employ the concept of “epic mode” in order to explain the relevance of The Elder Scrolls: Skyrim for the history of the epic typology, which must now be understood as transmedial. I illustrate the manner in which this representative title assimilates the experience and performance of the epic, as well as several meaningful shifts in terms of genre theory, the most notable of which is an intrinsic posthuman quality. The experience of play inherent to Skyrim does not only validate the latter as an authentic digital epic of contemporary culture, but it also enhances the content, role and impact of the typology itself, which is yet far from falling into disuse.1
Digital game play is a common pastime among college students and monopolizes a great deal of time for many students. Researchers have previously investigated relationships between subject-specific game play and academics, but this study fulfills a need for research focusing on entertainment game strategies and how they relate to strategies and success in other contexts. Utilizing a survey of 191 undergraduate students, the goal was to investigate students’ digital game play habits, strategies, and beliefs that predict gaming expertise, and to determine if these relate to academic success. Factor analysis revealed three latent variables that predict expertise: dedication, solo mastery, and strategic play. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine whether these three components could also predict academic outcome variables. Findings point to the absence of a relationship between these variables and academic GPA, but to the presence of a tentative relationship between confidence in game play and confidence in personal control over academic success.
-18 Consalvo, Mia. “Console Video Games and Global Corporations: Creating a Hybrid Culture.” In New Media & Society, 8/1, 2006, pp. 117-137 Crawford, Garry and Jason Rutter. “Cultural Studies and DigitalGames.” In Understanding DigitalGames, edited by Jo Bryce and Jason Rutter. London: Sage, 2006, pp. 148-204 Fujimoto, Tōru 藤本徹. Shiriasu gēmu: Kyōiku shakai ni yakudatsu dejitaru gēmu シリアスゲーム: 教育社会に役立つデジタルゲーム [Serious Games: Useful DigitalGames for Education and Society]. Tōkyō 東京: Tōkyō Denki daigaku shuppan kyoku 東京電機大学出版局, 2007 Gamefaqs.com. “Dark Souls is a Western
choosing an AP 65
APs funding 65
7. Which toys and games are appropriate for our children? 67
Toys and games 67
Accessible toys and games for all 71
Selecting toys and games 74
With regard to elements related to the child 75
With regard to elements related to the toy/activity 75
a. General aspects related to the toy/activity 75
b. Specific aspects related to the toy/activity 76
Toy or game adaptation 78
Playing with toys 83
8. Which digitalgames are appropriate for our children? 85