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, fructooligosaccharide or galactooligosaccharide on the growth Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ). Aquaculture, 283: 163–167. Guan Y., Zhou H., Wang Z. (2011). Effects of xylooligosaccharide on growth performance, activities of digestive enzymes, and intestinal microflora of juvenile Pelodiscus sinensis . Front. Agric. China, 5: 612–617. Guzmán-Villanueva L.T., Tovar-Ramírez D., Gisbert E., Cordero H., Guardiola F.A., Cuesta A., Meseguer J., Ascencio-Valle F., Esteban M.A. (2014). Dietary administration of beta-1,3/1,6-glucan and probiotic strain Shewanella putrefaciens , single or

References ADEDIRE C.O., BALOGUN R.A. 1995. Digestive enzymes and regional localization of proteolytic endopeptidase in alimentary canal of Kola nut weevil, Sophrorhinus insperatus FAUST (Curculionoidea). Entomon 20(3): 183-189. ADEMOLU K.O. 2013. Sexual dimorphism in somatic tissues’ response to copulation in adult Zonocerus variegatus (L). Nigerian Journal of Entomology 30(1): 164-169. ADEMOLU K.O., IDOWU A.B. 2011. Activity of digestive enzymes in Zonocerus variegatus (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae) gut homogenates during post embryonic development. International

(5), 355-361. Brigham, R.M. (1987) The significance of winter activity by the big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus): the influence of energy reserves. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 65(5), 1240-1242. Buchholz, R.H. (1958) Digestive enzymes of the mole, bat and rat. Journal of Mammalogy, 39, 452-453. Dunbar, M.B. & Tomasi, T.E. (2006) Arousal patterns, metabolic rate, and an energy budget of eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis) in winter. Journal of Mammalogy, 87(6), 1096-1102. Encarnação, J.A. & Dietz, M. (2006) Estimation of food intake and ingested energy in Daubenton

aquafeeds containing DDGS and tapioca starch. J. Aquacul. Feed Sci. Nutr., 1: 6–21. Kawai S.-I., Ikeda S. (1972). Studies on digestive enzymes of fishes – II: Effect of dietary change on the activities of digestive enzymes in carp intestine. NIPPON SUISAN GAKKAISHI, 38: 265–270. Lei S.-J. (2006). Effects of ration level and feeding frequency on digestibility in juvenile soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis . J. Zhejiang Univ. Sci. B, 7: 580–585. Lin W.Y., Huang C.H. (2007). Fatty acid composition and lipid peroxidation of soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis

.L., PAPPAS, P.W. (1980): Trypsin adsorption by Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda). J. Parasitol., 66: 49 - 52 SCHROEDER, L.L., PAPPAS, P.W., MEANS, G.E. (1981): Trypsin inactivation by intact Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda): some characteristics of the inactivated enzyme. J. Parasitol., 67: 378 - 385 SHISHOVA-KASATOCHKINA, O.A., LEUTSKAYA, Z.K. (1979): Biochemical aspects of relations between helminth and host. Moscow, Nauka, 280 pp. (In Russian) SOLOVYEV, M.M., KASHINSKAYA, E.N., IZVEKOVA, G.I., GLUPOV, V.V. (2015): pH values and activity of digestive enzymes in the

S., Ishikawa M., Yokoyama S. (2014). Effects of using exogenous digestive enzymes or natural enhancer mixture on growth, feed utilization, and body composition of Rabbitfish, Siganus rivulatus . Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology. B 4. Dawood M.A.O., Eweedah N.M., Khalafalla M.M., Khalid A. (2020a). Evaluation of fermented date palm seed meal with Aspergillus oryzae on the growth, digestion capacity and immune response of Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ). Aquacult. Nutr. https://doi.org/10.1111/anu.13042 Dawood M.A.O., Eweedah N.M., Moustafa

proteins, and immune response of Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ) exposed to heat stress. J. Therm. Biol., 88:102500. Dawood M.A.O., Shukry M., Zayed M.M., Omar A.A., Zaineldin A.I., El Basuini M.F. (2019a). Digestive enzymes, immunity and oxidative status of Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ) reared in intensive conditions. Slov. Vet. Res., 56. Dawood M.A.O., Magouz F.I., Salem M.F.I., Abdel-Daim H.A. (2019b). Modulation of digestive enzyme activity, blood health, oxidative responses and growth-related gene expression in GIFT by heat-killed Lactobacillus

References 1. Basmacioğlu Malayoğlu, H., Baysal, S., Misirlioğlu, Z., Polat, M., Yilmaz, H., Turan, N., 2010: Effects of oregano essential oil with or without feed enzymes on growth performance, digestive enzyme, nutrient digestibility, lipid metabolism and immune response of broiler fed on wheat-soybean meal diets. Br. Poult. Sci., 51, 67-80. 2. Bradford, M. M., 1976: A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal. Biochem., 72, 248-254. 3. Brenes, A., Roura, E., 2010

pistachio green stink bug, Brachynema germari KOLENATI (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology 13(3): 215-219. RAZAVI TABATABAEI P., HOSSEININAVEH V., GOLDANSAZ S.H., TALEBI K. 2011. Biochemical characterization of digestive proteases and carbohydrases of the carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (ZELLER) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology 14(2): 187-194. SANTOS C.D., TERRA W.R. 1984. Plasma membrane-associated amylase and trypsin: intracellular distribution of digestive enzymes in the midgut of the cassava hornworm, Erinnyis

Abstract

The pollen of stingless bees is derived from flower pollen mixed with bee digestive enzymes and preserved with honey and nectar. In this study, the volatile compounds present in ethanolic bee pollen extracts (BPEs) from three species of the Malaysian stingless bee were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Hydrocarbons, sugars and its derivatives, fatty acids, amino acids, alcohol, uridine, aldehyde and an unknown carbamate were detected. Mannitol, the main sugar compounds, represented 54.34% in Trigona thoracica, 39.11% in Trigona apicalis and 33.05% in Trigona itama. Propanoic acid and hexadecanoic acid were the main hydrocarbons present in the extract of Trigona apicalis (4.04%) and Trigona thoracica pollen (1.28%) respectively. The polyunsaturated fatty acids linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid were found in small amounts in all BPEs (0.07-1.11%). The chemical compounds found in BPEs had biological activities, thus bee pollen may be useful in traditional medicine and as a health supplement.