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References 1. Dworkin SF, L LeResche. Research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders: review, criteria, examinations and specifications, critique - J Craniomandib Disord Facial Oral Pain, 6, 1992, N1, 301-355. 2. Dworkin SF. Research Diagnostic criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders: current status & future relevance. - J Oral Rehabil, 37, 2010, N1, 734-743. 3. Manfredini, D, L Guarda-Nardini, Agreement between Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders and Magnetic Resonance Diagnoses of Temporomandibular disc displacement in a


Ventilator-associated pneumonias have been estimated to be the second most common nosocomial infections among children treated in intensive care units. They occur in mechanically ventilated patients through intubation tube or tracheostomy, the infl ammation usually involving the lung parenchyma. The ventilator-associated pneumonia is associated with a longer antibiotic treatment, greater duration of mechanical ventilation (MV) and higher mortality rates in children. The condition is also associated with a higher cost of the treatment. This paper reviews and comments in detail the criteria formulated by the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance (NNSI) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonias in children. The disease etiology is associated with the typical causes of nosocomial infections in this age: P. aeruginosa, E. coli and K. pneumoniae. The pathogenesis of the condition is inadequately studied but the aspiration of gastric contents and immune defi ciency are proven risk factors. Two mechanisms have a major role in the development of the disease - micro-aspiration of gastric contents and colonization of the lower airways with pathogens.

References 1. Schiffman E, R Ohrbach, E Truelove, J Look, G Anderson, JP Goulet et al. Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (DC/ TMD) for Clinical and Research Applications: Recommendations of the International RDC/TMD Consortium Network and Orofacial Pain Special Interest Group. - J Oral Facial Pain Headache., 28, 2014, № 1,6-27. 2. Peck C, J-P Goulet, F Lobezzoo, E Schiffman et al. Expanding the taxonomy of the diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders. - J. Oral Rehabil. 41, 2014,№ 1, 2-23 3. The American Academy of Orofacial Pain

. Demographic and clinical correlates of metabolic syndrome in Native African type-2 diabetic patients. J Natl Med Assoc 97:557-63. Johnson LW, Weinstock RS. 2006. The metabolic syndrome: concepts and controversy, Mayo Clinic Proceedings 81(12):1615-20. Kengne AP, Limen SN, Sobngwi E, et al. 2012. Metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes: comparative prevalence according to two sets of diagnostic criteria in sub-Saharan Africans. Diabetology Metabic Syndrome 4:22. Leslie BR. 2006. Metabolic Syndrome: Historical Perspectives. Am J Med Sci 330:264-8. Lorenzo C, Okoloise M

References 1. Turkdogan D, Cagirici S, Soylemez D, et al. Characteristic and overlapping features of migraine and tension-type headache. Headache 2006;46:461-8. 2. Karli N, Akgoz S, Zarifoglu M, , et al. Clinical characteristics of tension type headache and migraine in adolescents: a student based study. Headache 2006;46:399-412. 3. Anttila P, Metsahonkala L, Aromaa M, et al. Determinants of tension type headache in children. Cephalalgia 2002;22:401-9. 4. Rasmussen B, Jensen J, Olesen J. A population-based analysis of the diagnostic criteria of the International

. 1994;6:445-61. 5. Kramer IR, Lucas RB, Pindborg JJ, Sobin LH. Definition of leukoplakia and related lesions: An aid to studies on oral precancer. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1978;46:518-39. 6. Van der Meij EH, van der Waal I. Lack of clinico pathologic correlation in the diagnosis of oral lichen planus based on the presently available diagnostic criteria and suggestion for modification. J Oral Pathol Med. 2003;32:507-12. 7. van der Meij EH, Reibel J, Slootweg PJ, van der Wal JE, de Jong WF, van der Waal I. Interobserver and intraobserver variability in the


Oncocytic tumors are rare in the adrenal gland. The histopathological diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma is difficult due to the lack of precise diagnostic criteria for malignancy. A 44-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with left flank pain. Radiologically an adrenal mass was detected. After the excision and histopathologic evaluation of the mass, a diagnosis of adrenocortical oncocytic carcinoma was made. At least one of the features of more than 5 mitoses in 50 high power fields, atypical mitotic figures or venous invasion is required for the diagnosis of malignancy in adrenocortical tumors. It has been suggested that tumors that have more than one of the minor criteria of large size (>10 cm or >200 gr), necrosis, capsular or sinusoidal invasion, should be evaluated as having uncertain malignant potential.


Introduction. The encapsulated, non-invasive subtype of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC) represents approximately 10% to 20% of all thyroid cancers. Many studies over the past decade have shown that these tumors carry an indolent clinical course, with no recurrence, even in patients treated by lobectomy. Their reclassification as neoplasms with “very low malignant potential” has recently been suggested by an international group of experts and a new terminology was proposed: “non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features” (NIFTP). However, a diagnosis of NIFTP is still challenging for many pathologists in daily practice. Presentation of case series. By presenting six illustrative cases of NIFTP, this article aims to highlight the diagnostic criteria and the burden difficulties when dealing with NIFTP cases. Characteristic histological features, inclusion and exclusion criteria for NIFTP, as well as sampling guidelines and differential diagnosis challenges are all discussed. Conclusions. The diagnosis of NIFTP is not straightforward and requires meeting strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. Total sampling of the tumor capsule in these cases is mandatory in order to exclude invasion (capsular and/or vascular). A diagnosis of NIFTP promotes a less-aggressive patient management that is, no need for completion thyroidectomy or radioactive iodine therapy.

diagnostic criteria. J Child Neurol. 2002. 17:548-54. [13] Friedrich RE, Hartmann M, Mautner VF. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) in NF1-afected children. Anticancer Res. 2007;27:1957-60. [14] Gill DS, Hyman SL, Steinberg A, North KN. Age-related fndings on MRI in Neurofibromatosis type 1. Pediatr Ra-diol. 2006;31:1048-1056. [15] Gutmann, D H, Aylsworth A, Carey JC, Korf B, Marks J, Py-eritz RE, Rubenstein A, Viskochil D. The diagnostic evaluation and multidisciplinary management of neurofibroma-tosis 1 and Neurofibromatosis 2. JAMA. 1997;278, 51-57. [16

, in profile-differentiated soils, no single isolated soil-forming process can form the soil as a holistic natural body. Such soils are formed with the participation of certain combinations of specific BSP, but never formed by only one process ( Targulyan, 1985 ). In modern Ukrainian soil science, the genesis issues of the profile-differentiated soils of the Precarpathian region are the most controversial. Scientists’ views on the formation of the eluvially-illiual differentiation of the profile are ambiguous due to the contradiction between the diagnostic criteria