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REFERENCES 1. Finger RP, Bertram B, Wolfram C, Holz FG. Blindness and visual impairment in Germany: a slight fall in prevalence. Dtsch Arztebl Int 109: 484–489, 2012. 2. Hammes HP, Kerner W, Hofer S et al. Diabetic retinopathy in type 1 diabetes – a contemporary analysis of 8,784 patients. Diabetologia 54: 1977–1984, 2011. 3. Hammes HP. Optimal treatment of diabetic retinopathy. Ther Adv Endocrinol Metab 4: 61-71, 2013. 4. Ghanchi F, Bailey C, Chakravarthy U et al. The Royal College of Ophthalmologists' clinical guidelines for diabetic retinopathy: a

References 1. Amos AF, McCarty DJ, Zimmet P. The rising global burden of diabetes and its complications: estimates and projections of the year 2010. Diabet Med 14 (Suppl. 5): S1-85, 1997. 2. Oshitari T, Roy S. Common therapeutic strategies for diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma. Curr Drug Ther 2: 224-32, 2007. 3. Aiello LP, Gardner TW, King GL, Blankenship G, Cavallerano JD, Ferris FL 3rd et al. Diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes Care 21: 143-56, 1998. 4. Klein R, Klein BEK, Moss SE, Davis MD, DeMets DL. The Wisconsin epidemiologic study of diabetic

References 1. Manaviat MR, Rashidi M, Afkhami- Ardekani M, Shoja MR . Prevalence of dry eye syndrome and diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetic patients. BMC Ophthalmol 8: 10, 2008. 2. Verma S, Wang CH, Li SH et al . A selffulfilling prophecy: C-reactive protein attenuates nitric oxide production and inhibits angiogenesis . Circulation 106: 913-919, 2002. 3. Torzewski M, Rist C, Mortensen RF et al. Creactive protein in the arterial intima: role of C-reactive protein receptor-dependent monocyte recruitment in atherogenesis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 20

. Exudate-based diabetic macular edema detection in fundus images using publicly available datasets. Medical Image Analysis. 2012;16(1):216-226. [4] Geetha Ramani R, Balasubramanian L, Jacob SG. Automatic Prediction of Diabetic Retinopathy and Glaucoma through Retinal Image Analysis and Data Mining Techniques. 2012 International Conference on Machine Vision and Image Processing (MVIP), Taipei, 2012, pp. 149-152. IEEE, 201. [5] Wagle S, Mangai JA, Kumar VS. An Improved Medical Image Classification Model using Data Mining Techniques. GCC Conference and exhibition, November

of Diabetes in the World, 2013 Available from: http://healthintelligence.drupalgardens.com/content/ prevalence-diabetes-world-2013 4. Aiello LM et al. Diabetic retinopathy. In: Guyer, Yannuzzi, Chang, Shields, Green editors. Retina- Vitreous-Macula. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1999. p. 316-44. 5. Wykoff CC, Brown DM. Medscape Ophthalmology: Diabetic Retinopathy: A Team Approach to Screening, Referral, and Treatment. Disclosures Mar 20, 2012. Available from: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/760431 6. Chakrabarti R, Harper CA, Keefe E. Diabetic Retinopathy

REFERENCES 1. Leslie R. Dye, MD, FACMT, FAACT, Richard K. Clise, MJ Erickson–Hogue, MD. Diabetic retinopathy, November 25, 2018, Clinical Key, Elsevier Point of Care. 2. Brad Bowling. Kanski's Clinical Ophthalmology a systemic approach, eight edition. Elsevier, 2016, p. 520. 3. Shlomo Melmed, Kenneth S. Polonsky, P. Reed Larsen, Henry M. Kronenberg. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology, 2016, pp. 1503–1516. 4. Jack Kanski, Brad Bowling. Kanski's Clinical Ophthalmology 8 th Edition, 2015 5. Ryan Lee, Tyen Y. Wong and Chaurumathi Sabanayagam. Epidemiology of

of opticin. Hum Mol Genet. 2002; 11:1333-42. 10.1093/hmg/11.11.1333 8. Le Goff MM, Slevin MA, Bishop PN. Opticin is an inhibitor of VEGF-A and FGF-2-activated angiogenesis. Annual Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005; 46:451. 9. Sanders EJ, Walter MA, Parker E, Arámburo C, Harvey S. Opticin binds retinal growth hormone in the embryonoic vitreous. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003; 44:5404-9. 10. Barber AJ. A new view of diabetic retinopathy: a neurodegenerative disease of the eye. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2003; 27: 283-90. 10.1016/S0278-5846(03)00023-X

Potential prophylactic role of aminoguanidine in diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy in experimental animals

This study sought to determine the potential prophylactic and antioxidant effects of aminoguanidine in experimentally induced diabetes. Four groups of Wistar rats, each composed of ten rats, were used. Two groups served as control. In group 3, diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (65 mg kg-1). In group 4, diabetes was induced and treated with aminoguanidine (100 mg kg-1 daily) orally for 3 months. Levels of serum glucose, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and erythrocytes catalase were analyzed on day 90 of the experiment. Retinal and kidney specimens were examined histopathologically after sacrifice of the animals. A significant antioxidant effect of aminoguanidine and its prophylactic role in diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy were observed in experimental animals.

REFERENCES 1. SJOLIE AK, STEPHENSON J, ALDINGTON S, KOHNER E, JANKA H, STEVENS L, et al. , THE EURODIAB IDDM COMPLICATIONS STUDY GROUP. Retinopathy and vision loss in insulin-dependent diabetes in Europe. Ophthalmology 1997; 104 :252–260. 2. KLEIN R, KLEIN BE, MOSS SE, DAVIS MD, DEMETS DL. The Wisconsin epidemiologic study of diabetic retinopathy. II. Prevalence and risk of diabetic retinopathy when age at diagnosis is less than 30 years. Arch Ophthalmol 1984; 102 :520-526. 3. ROSSING K, JACOBSEN P, ROSSING P, LAURITZEN E, LUND-ANDERSEN H, PARVING HH

References 1] KAUPPI, T. : Eye Fundus Image Analysis for Automatic Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy, Thesis for the degree of Doctor of Science, Acta Universitatis Lappeenrantaensis 414, Nov 2010. [2] ONG, G. L.-RIPLEY, L. G.-NEWSOM, R. S.-COOPER, M.-CASSWELL, A. G. : Screening for Sight-Threatening Diabetic Retinopathy: Comparison of Fundus Photography with Automated Color Contrast Threshold Test, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 137 No. 3 (2004), 445-452. [3] CIULLA, T. A.-AMADOR, A. G.-ZINMAN, B.-: Diabetic Retinopathy and Diabetic Macular Edema, Diabetes Care 26 (2003