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The Development of Nanotechnologies and Advanced Materials Industry in Science and Entrepreneurship: Socioeconomic and Technical Indicators. A Case Study of Latvia (Part Two)

Abstract

Part two of the in-depth scientific study clarifies the significant social and technical indicators of the development of nano-field at the macro, micro, and meso development levels of the economic environment in Latvia in the framework of the given theme. The analytical assessment of numerical change in socioeconomic and technical factors clearly demonstrates the interaction of nano-field with the development of science and manufacture, as found out in the study. The identified indicators are proposed to use for research, comparison and implementation in any other country of the world.

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The Development of Nanotechnologies and Advanced Materials Industry in Science and Entrepreneurship: Scientific Indicators. A Case Study of Latvia (Part Three)

Abstract

The present scientific paper is the third part and continuation of the indepth scientific study of the developed system of engineering economic indicators, where the authors obtain results from the scientific research presented in a series of works on the development of the nanotechnologies and advanced materials industry in science and entrepreneurship in Latvia. Part three determines the crucial scientific indicators of the development of nano-field at the macro, micro, and meso development levels of the economic environment in Latvia. The paper provides the interaction of new identified indicators of nanofield in terms of further scientific and practical activities. Latvia is analysed in comparison with other countries in the world.

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The Development of Nanotechnologies and Advanced Materials Industry in Science and Entrepreneurship: Legal Indicators. A Case Study of Latvia (Part Four)

Abstract

The present scientific paper is the fourth part and continuation of the in-depth scientific study of the developed system of engineering economic indicators, where the authors obtain results from the scientific research presented in a series of works on the development of the nanotechnologies and advanced materials industry in science and entrepreneurship in Latvia. Part Four determines the essential legal indicators of the development of nano-field at the macro, micro, and meso development levels of the economic environment in Latvia. The paper provides the interaction of new identified indicators of nano-field in terms of further scientific and practical activities. Latvia is analysed in comparison with other countries in the world.

Open access
The Development of Nanotechnologies and Advanced Materials Industry in Science and Entrepreneurship: Socioeconomic and Technical Indicators. A Case Study of Latvia (Part One)

Abstract

The present scientific paper is the first part of two publications, where the authors obtain results from the scientific research presented in a series of works on the development of the nanotechnologies and advanced materials industry in science and entrepreneurship in Latvia. The study has a focus on finding proper socioeconomic and technical indicators. It provides resume on a scope of the study. The paper contains the developed structure of engineering economic indicator system, determined groups of indicators for assessment of the development of nanotechnologies and advanced materials industry in Latvia and results of the evaluation of the obtained statistics on the economic indicators.

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The Use of Ergonomics to Streamline Processe

Abstract

At present, it is demanded more and more that the working conditions meet ergonomic principles. Most people have a sedentary job, and many of us spend many hours at the computer. This situation is related to the development of science and technology, and causes number of complications if the ergonomic principles are not observed. Research Institute of labour safety v.v.i. is engaged in examination, validation and application of methods of prevention of risks caused by work activities and endangering human health and the environment. This issue has already been addressed also in an engineering plant.

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Nanoporous Silica-Based Materials for Sorption of Pharmaceuticals and Biomolecules

Abstract

Our concern in this paper is to review four kinds of mesoporous silica materials which can be used as potential sorbents for pharmaceuticals. It is known that a continuous development of science, medicine and food industry has an effect on contamination of the natural environment. Moreover, many impurities, such as drugs, vitamins or proteins etc., which get into environment from urban and hospital wastes, can also influence on human organisms. Thus, there is a need to control an amount of those compounds, especially in the natural waters and wastewaters [1-4]. In this work, we present four types of silica materials which can be helpful in water purification by using adsorption process.

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How Far is Environmental Engineering from Biomedical Engineering?

Abstract

The development of science, which has been observed in recent years, shows that engineering knowledge and activity are becoming more and more interdisciplinary. Up to the late 80-ties of the previous century, the experience and interest of engineers covered mainly hard sciences that directly followed their education. After this period, the engineering knowledge and solutions proposed in one discipline started to be applied successfully in other domains. This tendency can be seen especially in Biomedical Engineering, which development is based on achievements made in the rest of hard sciences, even if they seem to be as distant as Environmental Engineering.

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The Didactical Aspects of Integrated Natural Science Content Model for Secondary School Education

The Didactical Aspects of Integrated Natural Science Content Model for Secondary School Education

The main aspects of democratic system of education are a humanistic approach, individualization, and differentiation. Ongoing discussions focus on the best way to teach natural sciences for pupils in humanitarian, social or vocational education programs in the context of sustainable development. For these types of programs, the natural science curriculum should provide all learners with the opportunity to achieve scientific and technological literacy (STL) that is to develop pupils' capacities to function as responsible citizens in the world increasingly affected by science and technologies. This paper highlights specific guidelines for the development of science curricula that are both interdisciplinary and socially relevant. The author emphasizes the context of interaction between human beings, society, and environment. These aspects are introduced in the new school science curriculum of Latvia. The survey of teachers' attitudes towards integrated natural science curriculum and study of pupils' achievements reflects the possibility of promoting scientific literacy of pupils.

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Scientific and Technological Progress, Political Beliefs and Environmental Sustainability

Abstract

With the development of science and technology, a basically optimistic ideology of progress has emerged. This deterministic attitude has been challenged in recent decades as a result of harmful side-effects generated by the way technology and science have been approached and used. The study presented here is a part of a larger international and comparative study dealing with global/environmental issues related to political orientation, science and technology. 3 080 pre-service teachers from Finland, Greece, Sweden, Japan and Holland answered a closed-end survey instrument. The results of this study show that none of the sample country respondents identified themselves as optimists concerning the impact of science and technology on society and environment. The no-stance and the pessimistic attitudes towards technology and science seem to derive from the human and environmental costs associated with science and technology development. A strong connection was found between environmental consciousness and attitudes towards the role and impact of science and technology on society. These results indicate that society and education, in particular, should place higher critical concerns about scientific and technological issues and their relation to the development of a sustainable society.

Open access
HR Excellence in Research as an Attribute of Scientific Institutions′ Competitiveness

Abstract

In building competitiveness of the organization important role in plays not only the adaptation ability to changing environment, but also the acquisition of distinguishing qualities, which let it to maintain or improve its market position. For scientific institution its handicap could be HR Excellence in Research (HRE), a sign awarded by European Commission within the framework “Human Resources Strategy for Researchers” (HRS4R) strategy. It is given to scientific institutions which has adopted a European Charter for Researchers and a Code of Conduct for the Recruitment of Researchers so it friendly work environment and possibility of development is created.

Central Mining Institute in 2015 has taken actions to attain HR Excellence in Research, in order to make Institute more attractive to scientists and contribute to further development of science as well as achieving better market position. This paper discussed results of internal analysis, which included scientific employees and researchers opinion survey related to existing practices and regulations of conducting researches in Institute. As a result a special Report with an Action Plan was created, for improving friendly environment of scientific work and transparent recruitment principles of researchers. Paper also indicate main challenges the Institute faces for fully implementation HRE quidelines to stimulate economic and employment growth.

Open access