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, Szemraj J, Su KP, Maes M, Gałecki P. Manganese superoxide dismutase gene expression and cognitive functions in recurrent depressive disorder. Neuropsychobiology. 2014;70(1):23. 54. Talarowska M, Szemraj J, Berk M, Maes M, Gałecki P. Oxidant/ antioxidant imbalance is an inherent feature of depression. BMC Psychiatry. 2015;15:71. 55. Ulewicz-Magulska B. (2008). Selen w roślinnych surowcach leczniczych zawartość, rozi wzajemne relacje z innymi pierwiastkami. PhD. Thesis. Medical Academy of Gdansk, Gdańsk. 56. Victoria FN, Anversa R, Penteado F, Castro M, Lenardao EJ

References 1. Mueller TI, Leon AC, Keller MB, et al. Recurrence after recovery from Major Depressive Disorder during 15 years of observational follow-up. Am J Psychiatry. 1999;156:1000-6. 2. Trivedi MH, Rush AJ, Wisniewski SR, et al. Evaluation of outcomes with citalopram for depression using measurement-based care in STAR*D: Implications for clinical practice. Am J Psychiatry. 2006;163:28-40. 3. Bauer M, Bschor T, Pfennig A, et al. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) Guidelines for Biological Treatment of Unipolar Depressive Disorders


Annually, 7.9% of the general population in Latvia are suffering from depression. According to the official statistics, less than 8000 persons a year have been treated for depression in the state-paid health care services while the National Research Programme (NRP) BIOMEDICINE 2014–2017 found that more than 70 000 depressed patients annually are coming to family physicians (FPs) in Latvia. Within NRP researchers have developed an algorithm for diagnostics and treatment of depression and carried out ten educational courses for FPs all over Latvia in 2016. Data on the treatment of depression have been collected from the National Health Service (NHS) database from 01.01.2015 till 30.06.2017. Changes between the trained and control groups have been calculated for the time period before intervention — 2015–2016 and six months right after it. The “Depression School” was attended by 210 (15.2%) out of 1382 FPs, in contract with the NHS, who signed in for the course on first-to-come basis. There were no statistically significant demographic differences between trained and control groups, except, a larger proportion of FPs from rural places vs. the capital city attended the courses. Comparing the trained and control groups, during the period before the intervention there were on average 0.96 vs. 0.83 depressive episodes (F32) and 3.26 vs.1.74 recurrent depressive disorder (F33) episodes in 1/2 year (p < 0.001). Statistically significant increase was observed for F33 episodes (+1.42, p < 0.001), and numeric for F32 episodes (+0.18, p = 0.36) in the trained group of FPs in 2017. In total this gave a statistically significant (p < 0.001) increase by 43.6% of F33 diagnoses following the education course on depression for family physicians. Further analysis of data to access sustainability of training effect after 12 and 24 months are underway.

use of the Beck Depression Inventory. Cognitive Therapy and Research , 11, 289-299. Blasko, D. (1999). Only the tip of the iceberg: Who understands what about metaphor? Journal of Pragmatics , 31, 1675-1683. Castaneda, A. E., Suvisaari, J., Marttunen, M., Perälä, J., Saarni, S. I., Aalto-Setälä, T. et al. (in press). Cognitive functioning in a population-based sample of young adults with a history of non-psychotic unipolar depressive disorders without psychiatric comorbidity. Journal of Affective Disorders. Chiappe, D. L., & Chiappe, P. (2007). The role of

. Valkanova V, Ebmeier KP, Allan CL. CRP, IL-6 and depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. J Affect Disord. 2013;150(3):736-44. 13. Garcia-Rizo C, Fernandez-Egea E, Miller BJ, et al. Abnormal glucose tolerance, white blood cell count, and telomere length in newly diagnosed, antidepressant-naïve patients with depression. Brain Behav Immun. 2013;28:49-53. 14. Demir S, Atli A, Bulut M, et al. Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio in patients with major depressive disorder undergoing no pharmacological therapy. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2015

: 59-63. 13. Tan EC, Chan AO, Tan CH, Mahendran R, Wang A, Chua HC. Case-control and linkage disequilibrium studies of the tryptophan hydroxylase gene polymorphisms and major depressive disorder. Psychiatr Genet. 2003; 13:151-4. 14. Bellivier F, Leboyer M, Courtet P, Buresi C, Beaufils B, Samolyk D, et al. Association between the tryptophan hydroxylase gene and manic-depressive illness. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1998; 33:33-7. 15. Turecki G, Zhu Z, Tzenova J, Lesage A, Seguin M, Tousignant M, et al. TPH and suicidal behavior: a study in suicide completers. Mol Psychiatry

Major depressive disorder (MDD) or major depression is a common psychiatric disorder in the general population [ 1 ]. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), MDD affects more than 350 million people worldwide. Moreover, the Burden of Disease (BOD) Research Program in 2013 revealed that a Thai population of around 1.5 million people suffered from depression [ 2 ]. Psychiatric disorders, especially MDD, have been strongly linked to suicide and suicide attempts [ 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 ]. A metaanalysis has found that approximately 90% of the people who commit

of major depressive disorder. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2014;10:1297-307. 5. Elomaa AP, Niskanen L, Herzig KH, Viinamäki H, Hintikka J, Koivumaa-Honkanen H, et al. Elevated levels of serum IL-5 are associated with an increased likelihood of major depressive disorder. BMC Psychiatry 2012;12:2. 6. Schiepers OJ, Wichers MC, Maes M. Cytokines and major depression. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2005;29:201–17. 7. Dantzer R, Bluthe RM, Ghensi G, Cremona S, Laye S, Parnet P, et al. Ann. N Y Acad. Sci. 1998;856, 132-8. 8. Dantzer R, O’Connor JC, Freund GG


Introduction. The issue of depression in the context of cancer is a very important and complex problem. Suffering from depression and cancer at the same time concerns from 20% to 80% of the patients.

Aim. Assessment of depression occurrence among oncological patients depending on the profile of the disease.

Material and methods. The research group consisted of 63 oncological patients. Diagnostic poll method, survey technique was used. Occurrence and intensity level of depression symptoms were measured according to the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) which was accompanied by the authorial questionnaire analyzing socio-demographic situation of the surveyed as well as the cancer profile i.e. type of cancer, ailments accompanying the disease and the frequency of their occurrence, undertaken therapies and their results.

Results. The analysis conducted with the help of BDI questionnaire presented the following results: more than half of the surveyed (54%, n=34) suffered from moderate depression and roughly 1/10 (n=7) of the surveyed suffered from severe depression. Only 1/3 (n=22) of the surveyed showed no signs of depression and complained only about low mood. Side effects of the treatment preventing patients from everyday functioning determined the occurrence of depression symptoms. Severity of cancer symptoms, duration of illness, time of diagnosis and number of attempts to fight the disease had no influence on the occurrence of depression symptoms.

Conclusions. Cancer influences every part of a patient’s life. Because of this, a holistic approach should be applied when treating such patients and that approach should be based on cooperation of doctors with clinical psychologists.


Collaboration between doctors and patient is a perfect example of a specific kind of collaboration in the organization. Difficulties with establish proper relations between psychiatrists and patients with depressive disorders and schizophrenia is the subject of the paper. The thesis of the work assumes that psychiatrists and patients belong to the totally different “worlds” what is the cause of inability to create proper mutual collaboration between them. In 2009 a questionnaire survey was conducted at public mental hospitals of the Lodz region. Both doctors and patients notice a number of communication barriers and factors hampering the mutual cooperation, at the same time demonstrating the will to agree and cooperate. The proper contact and collaboration affect mental disposition and motivation for the process of recovery from the illness.

Conclusion: To a large extent not only a course of the treatment, but also a correct social functioning of both groups of the patients depends on the quality of the interrelation between them and psychiatrists. It appears, however, that the hierarchy of obstacles of successful therapy is completely different among the doctors and patients