The influence of education on differences in depressive symptoms between men and women in Slovenia
Background: This paper discusses depressive symptoms among men and women in Slovenia and their relationship to various socioeconomic factors, and education in particular.
Methods: The analysis is based on the European Social Survey Round 3 (ESS-3) from 2006, for the Slovene population (n = 1,282). Depressive symptoms, as a dependent variable, are measured using an 8-item version of the Centre for Epidemiological Studies - Depression (CES-D 8) scale. Independent variables included in the research model are: gender, age, education, income, marital and employment status and the presence of a child under the age of 12 in the household. Using mean comparisons of depression symptoms and regression analyses, the paper presents gender differences in depression levels and factors that influence it.
Results: Education contributes to lower depression levels in both genders; however, its influence is substantially higher among women. Depression symptoms are closely related to education. Lower educated women show a significantly higher score in depression symptoms than lower educated men. However, higher educated women show better mental health than higher educated men. Different sociodemographic factors influence the levels of depression symptoms differently between genders. The impact of housework as an employment status thus significantly influences higher levels of depression only among men. Similar indications for age, widowhood and the absence of partnership. In contrast, the influence of work disability on depression is only significant for women.
Conclusion: The influence of socioeconomic and cultural factors on depression symptoms is greater for women than men.
Adrijana Košćec Bjelajac, Jasminka Bobić, Jelena Kovačić, Veda Marija Varnai, Jelena Macan and Šime Smolić
The aim of this study was to examine mental health and cognitive functions in older Croatian workers (50–65 years) taking into account their employment status, self-assessed health, and a set of demographic characteristics. We analysed the data collected on 650 older workers (71 % employed) in the Wave 6 of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Unemployed workers reported symptoms of loneliness more often than the employed, while in rural areas unemployment was additionally associated with more pronounced symptoms of depression. Feeling of loneliness was also higher in those living without a partner in the household and in those with poorer health. In urban residents symptoms of depression were more severe in women, respondents with higher education, those living without a partner, and those who rated their health as poorer. As for cognitive functions, unemployment significantly predicted poorer subtraction in the rural subsample. Women in general showed less efficient numerical abilities. In the urban subsample poorer numerical abilities were also associated with lower education and living without a partner in the household. Better verbal recall was predicted by higher education and better self-rated memory. Higher scores in verbal fluency were predicted by urban residency and better self-rated health. Our results indicate that the protective factors for good mental health and cognitive functioning in older Croatian workers are being employed, having more education, living with a partner in the household, and being healthier. These findings stress the importance of implementing broader social policy strategies covering employment, education, and health.
The study aims to answer following questions: (1) What are the risk behaviors among children at late childhood and early stage of adolescence? (2) What are the differences between boys and girls concerning problem behaviors? (3) Do risk behaviors predict symptoms of depression? Participants fulfilled the set of three tools: (1) Children Depression Inventory authored by M. Kovacs (1992); (2) List of experienced risk behaviors and (3) List of open questions concerning the knowledge and experience with smart drugs. The study group consisted of 130 boys and girls attending the fifth and sixth grade of primary school. The study shows differences between boys’ and girls’ risk behaviors, as well as the similarities. The findings indicate that gender-related disparities in problem behaviors exist even at the early stages of puberty. Boys under one parent custody declare significantly more risk behaviors than girls under one parent custody. Finally, the symptoms of depression were predicted by cumulative number of risk behaviors and – on tendency level – by type of parental custody.
Ahmed Waqas, Aqsa Iftikhar, Zahra Malik, Kapil Kiran Aedma, Hafsa Meraj and Sadiq Naveed
= 7.98, P < 0.01) higher proportion of females (97, 48.7%) reported higher stress levels than males (52, 33.80%). However, no significant gender differences were found in PSQI, PHQ and MSPSS scale scores (see Extended data file 1 ).
Multiple linear regression analysis yielded a significant model (F (df) = 14.90 (351), P < 0.001), that explained a 35.70% variance in depressive symptomatology ( Table 3 ). Subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, daytime dysfunction and stress levels were significantly associated with depressionsymptoms. Sleep duration, habitual
Jana Potočníková, Tomáš Gregor, Helena Medeková and Aurel Zelko
Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide for males, and the fifth most common cancer overall. Using of autogenic training could reduce the influence of ADT and raise quality of prostate cancer patients. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of autogenic training in patients with prostate cancer. Patients were divided to experimental and control group. Experimental group participated in fourteen weeks long autogenic training program. Control group performed usual daily activities. Every subject of research performed input and output diagnostics which monitored psychical states of patients by psychological standardized tests - Differential questionnaire of depression (DDF) and Questionnaire of anxiety (STAI X1). Our data showed autogenic training program significant improved depressions symptoms and anxiety in experimental research group (p ≤ 0.05), however there was no main change of depression symptoms and anxiety values for control group (p = n.s.).
Ewa Humeniuk, Olga Dąbska, Katarzyna Pawlikowska-Łagód and Aleksandra Krupa
Introduction. The issue of depression in the context of cancer is a very important and complex problem. Suffering from depression and cancer at the same time concerns from 20% to 80% of the patients.
Aim. Assessment of depression occurrence among oncological patients depending on the profile of the disease.
Material and methods. The research group consisted of 63 oncological patients. Diagnostic poll method, survey technique was used. Occurrence and intensity level of depression symptoms were measured according to the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) which was accompanied by the authorial questionnaire analyzing socio-demographic situation of the surveyed as well as the cancer profile i.e. type of cancer, ailments accompanying the disease and the frequency of their occurrence, undertaken therapies and their results.
Results. The analysis conducted with the help of BDI questionnaire presented the following results: more than half of the surveyed (54%, n=34) suffered from moderate depression and roughly 1/10 (n=7) of the surveyed suffered from severe depression. Only 1/3 (n=22) of the surveyed showed no signs of depression and complained only about low mood. Side effects of the treatment preventing patients from everyday functioning determined the occurrence of depression symptoms. Severity of cancer symptoms, duration of illness, time of diagnosis and number of attempts to fight the disease had no influence on the occurrence of depression symptoms.
Conclusions. Cancer influences every part of a patient’s life. Because of this, a holistic approach should be applied when treating such patients and that approach should be based on cooperation of doctors with clinical psychologists.
Introduction: Phantom limb pain (PLP) occurs in approximately 75% of patients who undergo limb amputation. In identifying the etiopathogenic mechanisms, multidisciplinary approaches are increasingly important in explaining the causality based on neurological and psychological factors. PLP has many negative effects on the amputee's physical and mental integrity, which is why a variety of treatments have been conceived, whose effectiveness is rather limited.
Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of an immersive virtual reality (IVR) intervention program using the mirror therapy principles in decreasing PLP.
Method: Twenty participants suffering from PLP were randomly assigned to one of the two intervention groups: IVR and kinesiotherapy, respectively. Pre- and post-intervention measurements were performed both on pain level and on several psychological variables: depression and anxiety symptoms, pain catastrophizing, quality of life, body representation and coping strategies.
Results: Preliminary data show a significant pain relief in patients in the IVR group compared to those in the kinesiotherapy group. Besides, significant improvement was found in the case of the patients in the IVR group, in terms of life quality improvement, reducing irrational pain catastrophizing-related thoughts and positive coping strategies (positive refocusing and reappraisal). There were no differences identified between the two groups in terms of anxiety and depression symptoms. Despite expectations, patients in the IVR group experienced a significant increase in one negative coping strategy: rumination.
Conclusions: The results obtained are advocating the use of IVI intervention as a method phantom limb pain alleviation, with positive consequences on patients' life quality.
The problem of depression in adolescents is discussed increasingly more often. A lot of researchers devote their careers to investigating this subject. The issue becomes vital, since the number of young people with depressive symptoms is constantly on the rise. The diagnosis can be difficult, as many a time the changes so typical for the puberty period appear. They include mood swings, explosiveness, propulsion disorders, puissance, insomnia, concentration problems etc. These might be the first symptoms of depression as well. It is impossible to point to one cause of depression because it is a disease conditioned by many different factors, ranging from independent factors like genetic, biological, hormonal, through the influence of the family or the environment influence and socio-cultural components.
Early depression symptoms, long time exposure to stress, challenges or adversities - things every young person has to deal with - are a breeding ground for risky behaviors among adolescents. Teens are more likely to reach for different kinds of stimulants like alcohol, cigarettes or drugs etc. It has also been proven that anti-health behaviors may cause depression in the future
The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of the pathological personality traits in predicting suicidal ideation, especially in combination with other risk factors, such as the level of depression, prior attempts of suicide, low self-esteem, low level of perceived social support and self-esteem-by-social support interaction, both in general and in psychiatric inpatient samples. Data were analysed within two samples: non-clinical general sample (n = 461) and psychiatric inpatient sample (n = 131). Latvian Clinical Personality Inventory (LCPI) was used as the instrument for data collection. LCPI is a comprehensive multi-scale multi-item inventory, which consists of nine clinical scales (including Depression Symptom Scale), 33 pathological personality scales, five functioning scales, and five additional scales, including a Suicidal Ideation Scale, Low Self-esteem Scale and Lack of Perceived Social Support Scale. Results of the hierarchical regression analysis showed that several facet-level pathological personality traits (depressivity, self-harm, dissociation proneness, submissiveness, and suspiciousness) added significant incremental variance to the prediction of suicidal ideation above and beyond the well-known main risk factors of suicidal ideation, such as depression and prior suicide attempt. This effect remained stable even after taking into account additional interpersonal risk factors, such as low self-esteem, low level of perceived social support and self-esteem-by-perceived social support interaction. The incremental effect of personality traits was medium in the psychiatric inpatient sample and small in the general sample. Findings of the study may assist in early screening for persons with suicide risk and for developing prevention programmes in different settings.
Karolina Dańko, Piotr Dańko, Ewelina Soroka, Véronique Petit and Marcin Olajossy
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9. Seth S, Lewis AJ, Galbally M. Perinatal maternal depression and cortisol function in pregnancy and the postpartum period: a systematic literature review. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2016; 16(124):1-19.
10. Murray L, Arteche A, Fearon P, Halligan S, Goodyer I, Cooper P. Postnatal Depression and the Development of Depression in Offspring Up to 16 Years of Age. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2011