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des Balkans, http://eps.revues.org/356, Accessed on: August 3, 2015. Buzan, B., Waever, O. and de Wilde, J., 1998. Security: A New Framework for Analysis. Boulder CO:LyneRiener. Cincotta, R.P., 2004. Demographic Security Comes of Age, Environmental Change and Security Programme Report, Issue 10: 24-29. Goldstone, J., 2002. Population and Security: How Demographic Change Can Lead to Violent Conflict. Journal of International Affairs, 56(1): 3-22. Goldstone, J., 2009. Demography and Security: Security Implications of Global Population Changes, 2007-2050. Research

References Aitov, N.A., 1979: Sotsialnoye razvitiye gorodov: sushchnost i perspektivy (Social development of cities: essentiality and prospects - in Russian), Moscow: Znanie, p. 163. Antipova, E. and Fakeyeva, L., 2012: Demographic processes in rural areas of Belarus: geographical structure and spatial dynamics. In: Szymańska, D. and Biegańska, J. editors, Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series , Toruń: Nicolaus Copernicus University Press, No. 17, pp. 5‒12. DOI: 10.2478/v10089‒012‒0001‒9 Demographic situation in Kazakhstan: condition and prospects, 2011

References Admassie, A., Nuru, S., May, J., & Megquier, S. (2015). The demographic dividend: An opportunity for ethiopia’s transformation, Washington, DC: Population Reference Bureau and Ethiopian Economics Association. Bloom, D., Canning, D., Fink, G., & Finlay, J. (2009). Fertility, female labor force participation, and the demographic dividend. Journal of Economic Growth, 14(2): 79-101. Bloom, D., Kuhn, M., & Prettner, K. (2017). Africa’s prospects for enjoying a demographic dividend. Journal of Demographic Economics, 83(01): 63-76. Canning, D., Raja, S

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References [1] Paulley, N., Balcombe, R., Mackett, R., Titheridge, H., Preston, J., Wardman, M., Shires, J., & White, P. (2006). The demnad for public transport: The effects of fares, quality of service, income and car ownership. Transport Policy 13(4), 295-306. DOI: 10.1016/j.tranpol.2005.12.004. [2] Metz, D. (2012). Demographic determinants of daily travel demand. Transport Policy 21, 20-25. DOI: 10.1016/j.tranpol.2012.01.007. [3] Gnap, J. & Konečný, V., (2008). The impact of a demographic trend on the demand for scheduled bus transport in the Slovak Republic

, F. (Eds.), Handbook of Income Distribution, Amsterdam. Bricker, D., Ibbitson, J., (2009), Empty planet: the shock of global population decline, Crown Publishers, New York. Chybalski F., Marcinkiewicz E., (2016), The Replacement Rate: An Imperfect Indicator of Pension Adequacy in Cross-Country Analyses, Social Indicators Research, no. 126, pp. 99–117. Cotoi, C., (2009), Introducere în antropologia politică, Iaşi, Editura Polirom. Creţ, D. (2012), Ageing People in Romania, Demographic and Legai Aspects in the Context of Globalization Innovation and Sustainable

References Act of 13 October 1998 the Social Security System (Diary Set 137, pos. 887 as amended). Binczycka-Majewska, T. (2001). Demographic Reserve Fund to the risks of old age security system , Work and Social Protection 2001/10, Warszawa: PWE. Economic Forecasting. (2001). M. Cieślak (Ed.). Oxford University Press. Economic implications of achieving the retirement age for the baby-boom generations. (2003). J. Comfort (Ed.). Kraków: AE. Ekonomiczne konsekwencje osiągania wieku emerytalnego przez generacje powojennego wyżu demograficznego. (2003). J

References Eurostat. Retrieved April 27, 2007, from http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu Markowicz, I. (2000). Statystyczna analiza rentowności i żywotności małych firm w województwie szczecińskim . Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Szczecin, Szczecin, Poland. European Commission. (2002, No. 5). Observatory of European SMEs 2002: Business Demography in Europe . Retrieved April 27, 2007, from http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/enterprisepolicy/analysis/observatory_en.htm Główny Urząd Statystyczny. (2007). Zmiany strukturalne grup podmiotów gospodarki

Trajectories of the demographic development of Poland after 1989

One of the major problems of contemporary Poland is its increasingly difficult and complicated demographic situation. This makes the identification of demographic trends of the recent years an important research task. The article presents an assessment of Poland's demographic situation after 1989, i.e. after the change of the country's socio-political system, using the graphic method of trajectories. It is one of the possible, though less popular, methods of studying time series, offering a new perspective on various processes, here demographic ones. The article has two aims: cognitive and methodological.

, the age variable is predominant in care consumption. The impact of population ageing on medical demography represents a significant issue today [ 2 ], but it is still not, unfortunately, properly integrated into the calculation and the implementation of the numerus clausus , i.e. a number of students admitted to each medical, dental, pharmaceutical and midwifery program after the first year of study [ 3 ]. So, it is legitimate for each discipline (medical, surgical, medical-surgical), or even for each specialty (urology, vascular surgery, obstetricians, etc.), to