1. Åland Islands’ Government. “Policy for the Åland Islands’ demilitarisation and neutralization.” 2015.
2. Åland Islands’ Government. “Guidelines for requesting assistance of state authorities” (Riktlinjer för begäran om handräckning av riksmyndigheter). ÅLR 2017/7701. 15 November 2017 // https://www.regeringen.ax/sites/www.regeringen.ax/files/attachments/protocol/nr82-2017-enskild-rk1a.pdf .
3. “Åland Delegation Opinion.” Helsingfors/Mariehamn Nr. 24/17 (12 May 2017).
4. “Åland Islands’ Government’s Report on Issues related
Niinistö’s Blog .
Niinistö, J., 2016b. Gotlanti ja Ahvenanmaa. Jussi Niinistö’s Blog .
Norheim-Martinsen, P.M., 2013. The European Union and Military Force : Governance and Strategy , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Peck, T, 2016. Britain will veto EU army, says Defence Secretary. The Independent 17 September 2016 .
Poullie, Y., 2016. Åland’s Demilitarisation and Neutralisation at the End of the Cold War – Parliamentary Discussions in Åland and Finland 1988–1995. International Journal on Minority and Group Rights , 23(2), pp.179
Special Economic Zones (SEZs) Along the Korean Demilitarised Zone: A Feasible Pathway Towards An Accessible North Korea?
The Demilitarised Zone (DMZ) between the Republic of Korea (RoK) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) is judged to be the last border of the Cold War. Although no peace treaty has been signed after the Korean War, astounding changes in the South-North relations could be observed between the late 1990s and 2010. Although severe provocations of the North finally led to a new stop of a further rapprochement, the unexpected reconciliation process started in 2000 by South Korea not only led to a temporary detente, but also showed spatially manifested results. Two Special Economic Zones, one dedicated to tourism and the other to industrial production, had been established in the DPRK near the DMZ. What is the appropriate interpretation of those diffident cross-border activities which lasted for almost a decade? Were these SEZs really first successful attempts at feasible Korean cross-border cooperation? Summing up all knowledge on North-Korean SEZ policy and the general state doctrine, it seems that real cross-border cooperation could not be an option for the DPRK's current leadership, either before or after South-Korea's adoption of Sunshine Policy.
Jan Hercik, Petr Šimáček, Zdeněk Szczyrba and Irena Smolová
One of the basic transformation processes of the period since 1989 has been that of demilitarisation. Among other things, one of its consequences is the emergence of abandoned military buildings and areas - so-called military brownfields. These kinds of brownfields have a large number of specific features to which their subsequent revitalisation must necessarily be adapted. Since a large number of these areas are situated within municipalities or are directly adjacent to them, it is essential for their revitalisation to be approached with great sensitivity. This contribution deals with chosen examples of Czech revitalised post-military areas with a special view to their residential function, which is presently their dominant functional use.
Having a long tradition in the system of judicial organization in Romania, the military courts represent a category of courts specialized in the prosecution and punishment of the deeds committed by the military. In the context of satisfying the public interest and of the protection of the fundamental rights and freedoms of the citizens, the role of the military courts has always been a strongly individualized one and should, at first sight, enjoy a wider recognition. However, the reforms required by the implementation of the new codes, the Criminal Code and the Criminal Procedure Code, bring into discussion significant restructuring and side with a demilitarization of military courts, required by a better streamlining of the judicial system and by a more adequate implementation of the guarantees of independence and impartiality stipulated by the Constitution of Romania.
This article gives an overview of the 26 year long ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka and examines physical reconstruction and economic development as measures of conflict prevention and postconflict reconstruction. During the years of conflict, the Sri Lankan government performed some conflict prevention measures, but most of them caused counter effects, such as the attempt to provide “demilitarization”, which actually increased militarization on both sides, and “political power sharing” that was never honestly executed. Efforts in post-conflict physical reconstruction and economic development, especially after 2009, demonstrate their positive capacity as well as their conflict sensitivity. Although the Sri Lankan government initially had to be forced by international donors to include conflict sensitivity in its projects, more recently this has changed. The government now practices more conflict sensitivity in its planning and execution of physical reconstruction and economic development projects without external pressure.
In 2014, at the beginning of the crisis in Ukraine and Russia‘s aggression against this neighboring country, Lithuania became concerned about the strengthening of its military capabilities, augmenting the National Defense System (NDS) budget by almost 50% in two years. This may be considered unprecedented, if seen against the background of the presidential elections and those to the European Parliament, the fiscal discipline, the introduction of euro, as well as Russia‘s economic sanctions, the political decision in the course of 2014 on increasing the defense assignation by 130 million litas and in 2015 the increase by planned additional 356 million litas. This article analyzes two closely related problems of the Lithuanian NDS capabilities. First of all, changes in the NDS financing are explored in the context of permanent agreements of Lithuanian political parties concerning the allocation of 2% of the GDP for defense. This is followed by the discussion of the issues of military personnel staffing and training of the reserve as well as future challenges. This research contributes to the assessment of the critical NDS financing and staffing not only within academic circles but particularly among politicians and society in general. Additionally, it contributes to the awareness of the problems the army encountered in seeking to implement the objective set for it: to ensure the military security of the state. In the presence of the emerging threats in the region, this is of particularly great significance to the demilitarized and pacifist society of Lithuania. The article aims at identifying financing and personnel planning problems throughout a quarter of the century, ranging from the restoration of the Army of the Republic of Lithuania to 2014 inclusively. At the same time, the study encourages a discussion by the academic community on issues of the military security of the Lithuanian State and provides analyses as well as possible development scenarios.
Dariusz Karpisz, Anna Kiełbus and Maryna Zembytska
Ulewicz, R., Selejdak, R., 2018. Impact of Laser Machining on the Structure and Properties of Tool Steels . Materials Research Proceeding, 5, 37-40. DOI: DOI: 10.21741/9781945291814-7
Webb, J., 2014. Network Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) . ICTN 6870.
Relations between militaries and their host societies is one of the central themes in military sociology. The theme is timely because of the changes in European security policies implemented during this decade. The long process of demilitarisation after the Second World War meant gradual decline in military budgets and disappearance of several conscript armies in Europe. Coincidental growth of welfare regimes, civilian state and the deepening internationalisation weakened the role of the military as a legitimiser of the state. Due to societal and institutional
. 2006 Causal reasoning in dysfunctional leader-member interactions Journal of Managerial Psychology 21 8 747 762
Holmberg, A. (2015). A demilitarization process under challenge? The example of Sweden. Defence Studies , 15 (3), pp. 235-253 10.1080/14702436.2015.1084174 Holmberg A. 2015 A demilitarization process under challenge? The example of Sweden Defence Studies 15 3 235 253
Holmberg, A., & Hallenberg, J. (eds). (2017). The Swedish Presence in Afghanistan: Security and Defence Transformation . Routledge, Abingdon. Holmberg A. Hallenberg J. 2017 The Swedish